Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Gas Exchange in Hypoxia, Apnea, and Hyperoxia

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 Hypoxia
1.1 Critical Partial Pressure of O2
1.2 Oxygen Demand
1.3 Regional Gas Exchange During Hypoxia
2 Apnea
2.1 Aquatic Mammals
2.2 Humans
2.3 Other Terrestrial Mammals
3 Hyperoxia
3.1 Effects at Rest
3.2 Effects During Exercise
4 Summary
 1. Adams, R. P., and H. G. Welch. Oxygen uptake, acid‐base status, and performance with varied inspired oxygen fractions. J. Appl. Physiol. 49: 863–868, 1980.
 2. Angell, J. E., and M. James De B. Daly. Cardiovascular responses in apnoeic asphyxia: role of arterial chemoreceptors and the modification of their effects by a pulmonary vagal inflation reflex. J. Physiol. Lond. 201: 87–104, 1969.
 3. Asmussen, E., and M. Nielsen. Studies on the regulation of respiration in heavy work. Acta Physiol. Scand. 12: 171–188, 1946.
 4. Asmussen, E., and M. Nielsen. The cardiac output in rest and work at low and high oxygen pressures. Acta Physiol. Scand. 35: 73–83, 1955.
 5. Bain, W. H., J. R. Lancaster, and W. E. Adams. Pulmonary vascular changes with increased oxygen tensions. In: Hyperbaric Oxygenation, edited by I. M. Lendingham. Edinburgh: Livingstone, 1965.
 6. Bannister, R. G., and D. J. C. Cunningham. The effects on the respiration and performance during exercise of adding oxygen to the inspired gas. J. Physiol. Lond. 125: 118–137, 1954.
 7. Barclay, J. K., C. M. Boulianne, B. A. Wilson, and S. J. Tiffin. Interaction of hyperoxia and blood flow during fatigue of canine skeletal muscle in situ. J. Appl. Physiol. 47: 1018–1024, 1979.
 8. Bartels, H., H.‐P. Koepchen, L. Luhning, M. Mochizuki, and I. Witt. Die alveolar‐arterielle O2‐Druckdifferenz bei Ruhe und arbeit unter Hyperoxie (50% O2). Pfluegers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere 261: 534–542, 1955.
 9. Bergofsky, E. H., and P. Bertun. Response of regional circulations to hyperoxia. J. Appl. Physiol. 21: 567–572, 1966.
 10. Bicher, H. T. Brain oxygen autoregulation: a protective reflex to hypoxia? Microvasc. Res. 8: 291–313, 1974.
 11. Bird, A. D., and A. B. M. Telfer. The effect of oxygen at 1 and 2 atmospheres on resting forearm blood flow. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 123: 260–268, 1966.
 12. Bond, R. F., E. S. Manning, N. M. Gonzalez, R. R. Gonzalez, Jr., and V. E. Becker. Myocardial and skeletal muscle responses to hemorrhage and shock during α‐adrenergic block‐ade. Am. J. Physiol. 225: 247–257, 1973.
 13. Bourdeau‐Martini, J., C. L. Odoroff, and C. R. Honig. Dual effect of oxygen on magnitude and uniformity of coronary intercapillary distance. Am. J. Physiol. 226: 800–810, 1974.
 14. Bryan, A. C., L. G. Bentivoglio, F. Beerel, H. MacLeish, A. Zidulka, and D. V. Bates. Factors affecting regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion in the lung. J. Appl. Physiol. 19: 395–402, 1964.
 15. Cain, S. M. Effect of Pco2 on the relation of lactate and excess lactate to O2 deficit. Am. J. Physiol. 214: 1322–1327, 1968.
 16. Cain, S. M. Diminution of lactate rise during hypoxia by Pco2 and ã‐adrenergic blockade. Am. J. Physiol. 217: 110–116, 1969.
 17. Cain, S. M. Increased oxygen uptake with passive hyperventilation of dogs. J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 4–7, 1970.
 18. Cain, S. M. Relative rates of arterial lactate and oxygen‐deficit accumulation in hypoxic dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 224: 1190–1194, 1973.
 19. Cain, S. M. Arterial lactate responses in dogs made apneic or breathing nitrogen. J. Appl. Physiol. 42: 39–43, 1977.
 20. Cain, S. M. pH effects on lactate and excess lactate in relation to O2 deficit in hypoxic dogs. J. Appl. Physiol. 42: 44–49, 1977.
 21. Cain, S. M. Oxygen delivery and uptake in dogs during anemic and hypoxic hypoxia. J. Appl. Physiol. 42: 228–234, 1977.
 22. Cain, S. M. Supply dependency of oxygen uptake in ARDS: myth or reality? Am. J. Med. Sci. 288: 119–124, 1984.
 23. Cain, S. M., and C. K. Chapler. O2 extraction by hind limb versus whole dog during anemic hypoxia. J. Appl. Physiol. 45: 966–970, 1978.
 24. Cain, S. M., and C. K. Chapler. Oxygen extraction by canine hindlimb during hypoxic hypoxia. J. Appl. Physiol. 46: 1023–1028, 1979.
 25. Caldwell, P. R. B., W. L. Lee, Jr., H. S. Schildkraut, and E. R. Archibald. Changes in lung volume, diffusing capacity, and blood gases in men breathing oxygen. J. Appl. Physiol. 21: 1477–1483, 1966.
 26. Chapler, C. K., and S. M. Cain. Blood flow and O2 uptake in dog hindlimb with anemia, norepinephrine, and propranolol. J. Appl. Physiol. 51: 565–570, 1981.
 27. Chapler, C. K., S. M. Cain, and W. N. Stainsby. Blood flow and oxygen uptake in isolated canine skeletal muscle during acute anemia. J. Appl. Physiol. 46: 1035–1038, 1979.
 28. Chapler, C. K., S. M. Cain, and W. N. Stainsby. The effects of hyperoxia on oxygen uptake during acute anemia. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 62: 809–814, 1984.
 29. Cherniack, N. S., G. S. Longobardo, F. P. Palermo, and M. Heymann. Dynamics of oxygen stores changes following an alteration in ventilation. J. Appl. Physiol. 24: 809–816, 1968.
 30. Clark, J. M., and C. J. Lambertsen. Alveolar‐arterial O2 differences in man at 0.2,1.0, 2.0, and 3.5 Ata inspired Po2. J. Appl. Physiol. 30: 753–763, 1971.
 31. Cohen, R. D., and R. Simpson. Lactate metabolism. Anesthesiology 43: 661–673, 1975.
 32. Cole, R. B., and J. M. Bishop. Variation in alveolar‐arterial O2 tension difference at high levels of alveolar O2 tension. J. Appl. Physiol. 22: 685–693, 1967.
 33. Craig, A. B., Jr., and W. L. Medo. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during breath‐hold diving. J. Appl. Physiol. 24: 190–202, 1968.
 34. Danek, S. J., J. P. Lynch, J. G. Weg, and D. R. Dantzker. The dependence of oxygen uptake on oxygen delivery in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 122: 387–395, 1980.
 35. Daniell, H. B. Coronary flow alterations on myocardial contractility, oxygen extraction, and oxygen consumption. Am. J. Physiol. 225: 1020–1025, 1973.
 36. Dantzker, D. R., P. D. Wagner, and J. B. West. Instability of lung units with low VA/Q ratios during O2 breathing. J. Appl. Physiol. 38: 886–895, 1975.
 37. Davies, C. T. M., and A. J. Sargeant. Physiological responses to one‐ and two‐leg exercise breathing air and 45% oxygen. J. Appl. Physiol. 36: 142–148, 1974.
 38. Deneke, S. M., and B. L. Fanburg. Normobaric oxygen toxicity of the lung. N. Engl. J. Med. 303: 76–86, 1980.
 39. Duling, B. R. Microvascular responses to alterations in oxygen tension. Circ. Res. 31: 481–489, 1972.
 40. Duling, B. R. Oxygen, metabolism, and microcirculatory control. In: Microcirculation, edited by G. Kaley and B. M. Altura. Baltimore, MD: University Park, 1978, vol. 2, p. 401–429.
 41. Durán, W. N., and E. M. Renkin. Oxygen consumption and blood flow in resting mammalian skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 226: 173–177, 1974.
 42. Eggers, G. W. N., Jr., H. W. Paley, J. J. Leonard, and J. V. Warren. Hemodynamic responses to oxygen breathing in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 17: 75–79, 1962.
 43. Ekblom, B., R. Huot, E. M. Stein, and A. T. Thorstens‐son. Effect of changes in arterial oxygen content on circulation and physical performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 39: 71–75, 1975.
 44. Elsner, R., B. A. Gooden, and S. M. Robinson. Arterial blood gas changes and the diving response in man. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 49: 435–444, 1971.
 45. Ferrante, F. L. Oxygen conservation during submergence apnea in a diving mammal, the nutria. Am. J. Physiol. 218: 363–371, 1970.
 46. Fitzpatrick, J. H., Jr., D. D. Gilboe, L. R. Drewes, and A. L. Betz. Relationship of cerebral oxygen uptake to EEG frequency in isolated canine brain. Am. J. Physiol. 231: 1840–1846, 1976.
 47. Garcia, A. C., Y. L. Lai, B. A. Attebery, and E. B. Brown, Jr. Lactate and pyruvate accumulation during hypocapnia. Respir. Physiol. 12: 371–380, 1971.
 48. Granger, H. J., A. H. Goodman, and D. N. Granger. Role of resistance and exchange vessels in local microvascular control of skeletal muscle oxygenation in the dog. Circ. Res. 38: 379–385, 1976.
 49. Halmagyi, D. F. J., A. H. Goodman, and I. R. Neering. Hindlimb blood flow and oxygen usage in hemorrhagic shock. J. Appl. Physiol. 27: 508–513, 1969.
 50. Haugaard, N. Cellular mechanisms of oxygen toxicity. Physiol. Rev. 48: 311–373, 1968.
 51. Heistad, D. D., and R. C. Wheeler. Simulated diving during hypoxia in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 652–656, 1970.
 52. Hesser, C. M., B. Katsaros, and G. Matell. Pulmonary and tissue gas exchange during breath holding with oxygen. Respir. Physiol. 5: 78–90, 1968.
 53. Hill, A. V., C. N. H. Long, and H. Lupton. Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilization of oxygen. Pt. IV. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 97: 84–96, 1924.
 54. Hochachka, P. W. Living Without Oxygen: Closed and Open Systems in Hypoxia Tolerance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1980, p. 145–169.
 55. Hong, S. K., Y. C. Lin, D. A. Lally, B. J. B. Yim, N. Kominami, P. W. Hong, and T. O. Moore. Alveolar gas exchanges and cardiovascular functions during breath holding with air. J. Appl. Physiol. 30: 540–547, 1971.
 56. Hong, S. K., T. O. Moore, G. Seto, H. K. Park, W. R. Hiatt, and E. M. Bernauer. Lung volumes and apneic bradycardia in divers. J. Appl. Physiol. 29: 172–176, 1970.
 57. Honig, C. R. Hypoxia in skeletal muscle at rest and during the transition to steady work. Microvasc. Res. 13: 377–398, 1977.
 58. Honig, C. R., J. L. Frierson, and C. N. Nelson. O2 transport and Vo2 in resting muscle: significance for tissue‐capillary exchange. Am. J. Physiol. 220: 357–363, 1971.
 59. Horstman, D. H., M. Gleser, and J. Delehunt. Effects of altering O2 delivery on Vo2 of isolated, working muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 230: 327–334, 1976.
 60. Hughes, R. L., R. T. Mathie, D. Campbell, and W. Fitch. Systemic hypoxia and hyperoxia, and liver blood flow and oxygen consumption in the greyhound. Pfluegers Arch. 381: 151–157, 1979.
 61. Jacobson, I., A. M. Harper, and D. G. McDowall. The effects of oxygen at 1 and 2 atmospheres on the blood flow and oxygen uptake of the cerebral cortex. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 119: 737–742, 1964.
 62. Jan, K. M., J. Heldman, and S. Chien. Coronary hemodynamics and oxygen utilization after hematocrit variations in hemorrhage. Am. J. Physiol. 239 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 8): H326–H332, 1980.
 63. Johnson, L. F., Jr., J. R. Neville, and R. W. Bancroft. The effect of decreased barometric pressure on oxygen consumption. Aerosp. Med. 34: 97–100, 1963.
 64. Kaijser, L. Limiting factors for aerobic muscle performance. The influence of varying oxygen pressure and temperature. Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 346: 1–96, 1970.
 65. Karetzky, M. S., J. F. Keighley, and J. C. Mithoefer. The effect of oxygen administration on gas exchange and cardiopulmonary function in normal subjects. Respir. Physiol. 12: 361–370, 1971.
 66. Kawakami, Y., B. H. Natelson, and A. B. Du Bois. Cardiovascular effects of face immersion and factors affecting diving reflex in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 23: 964–970, 1967.
 67. Kendrick, J. E., S. J. De Haan, and J. D. Parke. Regulation of blood flow to respiratory muscles during hypoxia and hypercapnia. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 166: 157–161, 1981.
 68. Kenmure, A. C. F., W. R. Murdoch, I. Hutton, and A. J. V. Cameron. Hemodynamic effects of oxygen at 1 and 2 Ata pressure in healthy subjects. J. Appl. Physiol. 32: 223–226, 1972.
 69. Kerem, D., and R. Elsner. Cerebral tolerance to asphyxial hypoxia in the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 225: 593–600, 1973.
 70. Kooyman, G. L., D. H. Kerem, W. B. Campbell, and J. J. Wright. Pulmonary gas exchange in freely diving Weddell seals. Respir. Physiol. 17: 283–290, 1973.
 71. Kooyman, G. L., J. P. Schroeder, D. M. Denison, D. D. Hammond, J. J. Wright, and W. P. Bergman. Blood nitrogen tensions of seals during simulated deep dives. Am. J. Physiol. 223: 1016–1020, 1972.
 72. Kooyman, G. L., E. A. Wahrenbrack, M. A. Castellini, R. W. David, and E. E. Sinnett. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during voluntary diving in Weddell seals: evidence of preferred pathways from blood chemistry and behavior. J. Comp. Physiol. 138: 335–346, 1980.
 73. Lambertsen, C. J., S. G. Owen, H. Wendel, M. W. Stroud, A. A. Lurie, W. Lochner, and G. F. Clark. Respiratory and cerebral circulatory control during exercise at .21 and 2.0 atmospheres inspired Po2. J. Appl. Physiol. 14: 966–982, 1959.
 74. Larett, W. W. Control of hepatic and intestinal blood flow: effect of isovolaemic haemodilution on blood flow and oxygen uptake in the intact liver and intestines. J. Physiol. Lond. 265: 313–326, 1977.
 75. Larson, C. P., Jr., and J. W. Severinghaus. Postural variations in dead space and CO2 gradients breathing air and O2. J. Appl. Physiol. 17: 417–420, 1962.
 76. Lenfant, C. Measurement of factors impairing gas exchange in man with hyperbaric pressure. J. Appl. Physiol. 19: 189–194, 1964.
 77. Lenfant, C. Arterial‐alveolar difference in Pco2 during air and oxygen breathing. J. Appl. Physiol. 21: 1356–1362, 1966.
 78. Lin, Y. C., and D. G. Baker. Cardiac output and its distribution during diving in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 228: 733–737, 1975.
 79. Lin, Y. C., D. A. Lally, T. O. Moore, and S. K. Hong. Physiological and conventional breath‐hold breaking points. J. Appl. Physiol. 37: 291–296, 1974.
 80. Lin, Y. C., T. O. Moore, J. J. McNamara, and S. K. Hong. Oxygen consumption and conservation during apnea in the anesthetized dog. Respir. Physiol. 24: 313–324, 1975.
 81. Lindbom, L., R. F. Tuma, and K. E. Arfors. Influence of oxygen on perfused capillary density and capillary red cell velocity in rabbit skeletal muscle. Microvasc. Res. 19: 197–208, 1980.
 82. Lübbers, D. W. Tissue oxygen supply and critical oxygen pressure. In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue, edited by A. G. B. Kovach, E. Dora, M. Kessler, and I. A. Silver. New York: Pergamon, 1980, vol. 25, p. 3–11. (Proc. Int. Congr. Physiol. Sci., 28th, Budapest, 1980.)
 83. Lübbers, D. W., and M. Kessler. Oxygen supply and rate of tissue respiration. In: Oxygen Transport in Blood and Tissues, edited by D. W. Lübbers, U. C. Luft, G. Thews, and E. Witzleb. Stuttgart: Thieme, 1968, p. 90–99.
 84. Lutz, J., H. Henrich, and E. Bauereisen. Oxygen supply and uptake in the liver and intestine. Pfluegers Arch. 360: 7–15, 1975.
 85. MacMillan, V., and B. K. Siesjö. Critical oxygen tensions in the brain. Acta Physiol. Scand. 82: 412–414, 1971.
 86. Margaria, R., E. Camporesi, P. Aghemo, and G. Sassi. The effect of O2 breathing on maximal aerobic power. Pfluegers Arch. 336: 225–235, 1972.
 87. McDowall, D. G., I. M. Ledingham, and S. Tindal. Alveolar‐arterial gradients for oxygen at 1, 2, and 3 atmospheres absolute. J. Appl. Physiol. 24: 324–329, 1968.
 88. Mills, E., and F. F. Jöbsis. Mitochondrial respiratory chain of carotid body and chemoreceptor response to changes in oxygen tension. J. Neurophysiol. 35: 405–428, 1972.
 89. Mithoefer, J. C. Breath holding. In: Handbook of Physiology. Respiration, edited by W. O. Fenn and H. Rahn. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc, 1965, sect. 3, vol. II, chapt. 38, p. 1011–1025.
 90. Murphy, B., W. M. Zapol, and P. W. Hochachka. Metabolic activities of heart, lung, and brain during diving and recovery in the Weddell seal. J. Appl. Physiol. 48: 596–605, 1980.
 91. Nahas, G. G., L. Triner, H. S. Small, W. M. Manger, and D. V. Habif. Alterations in O2 uptake following hemorrhage in dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 210: 1009–1014, 1966.
 92. Ohta, Y., S. H. Song, A. C. Groom, and L. E. Farhi. Is inert gas washout from the tissues limited by diffusion? J. Appl. Physiol. 45: 903–907, 1978.
 93. Packer, B. S., M. Altman, C. E. Cross, H. V. Murdaugh, Jr., J. M. Linta, and E. D. Robin. Adaptations to diving in the harbor seal: oxygen stores and supply. Am. J. Physiol. 217: 903–906, 1969.
 94. Paulev, P. E. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of breath‐holding. Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 324: 1–116, 1969.
 95. Pirnay, F., M. Lamy, J. Dujardin, R. Deroanne, and J. M. Petit. Analysis of femoral venous blood during maximum muscular exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 33: 289–292, 1972.
 96. Pirnay, F., R. Marechal, R. Dujardin, M. Lamy, R. Deroanne, and J. M. Petit. Exercise during hyperoxia and hyperbaric oxygenation. Int. Z. Angew. Physiol. Einschl. Arbeitsphysiol. 31: 259–268, 1973.
 97. Powers, E. R., and W. J. Powell, Jr. Effect of arterial hypoxia on myocardial oxygen consumption. Circ. Res. 33: 749–756, 1973.
 98. Powers, S. R., Jr., R. Mannal, M. Neclerio, M. English, C. Marr, R. Leather, H. Ueda, G. Williams, W. Custead, and R. Dutton. Physiologic consequences of positive end‐expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation. Ann. Surg. 178: 265–272, 1973.
 99. Poyart, C., and G. G. Nahas. Inhibition of catecholamine‐induced calorigenesis and lipolysis by hypercapnic acidosis. Am. J. Physiol. 211: 161–168, 1966.
 100. Puy, R. J. M., R. W. Hyde, A. B. Fisher, J. M. Clark, J. Dickson, and C. J. Lambertsen. Alterations in the pulmonary capillary bed during early O2 toxicity in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 24: 537–543, 1968.
 101. Racker, E. From Pasteur to Mitchell: a hundred years of bioenergetics. Federation Proc. 39: 210–215, 1980.
 102. Restorff, W. V., B. Hofling, J. Holtz, and E. Bassenge. Effect of increased blood fluidity through hemodilution on coronary circulation at rest and during exercise in dogs. Pfluegers Arch. 357: 15–24, 1975.
 103. Ridgeway, S. H., and R. Howard. Dolphin lung collapse and intramuscular circulation during free diving: evidence from nitrogen washout. Science Wash. DC 206: 1182–1183, 1979.
 104. Robin, E. D. Of men and mitochondria: coping with hypoxic dysoxia. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 122: 517–531, 1980.
 105. Robin, E. D., H. V. Murdaugh, Jr., W. Pyron, E. Weiss, and P. Soteres. Adaptations to diving in the harbor seal— gas exchange and ventilatory response to CO2. Am. J. Physiol. 205: 1175–1177, 1963.
 106. Rosenberg, E., and L. D. MacLean. Effect of high oxygen tensions on diffusing capacity for CO and Krogh's K. J. Appl. Physiol. 23: 11–17, 1967.
 107. Saunders, K. B., D. M. Band, P. Ebden, J. P. Van der Hoff, D. J. Maberley, and S. J. G. Semple. Acid‐base status and gas exchange in the anesthetized dog breathing pure oxygen. Respiration 29: 305–316, 1972.
 108. Scholander, P. F. Animals in aquatic environments: diving mammals and birds. In Handbook of Physiology. Adaptation to the Environment, edited by D. B. Dill, and E. F. Adolph. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc, 1964, sect. 4, chapt. 45, p. 729–739.
 109. Seeherman, H. J., C. R. Taylor, G. M. O. Maloiy, and R. B. Armstrong. Design of the mammalian respiratory system. II. Measuring maximum aerobic capacity. Respir. Physiol. 44: 11–23, 1981.
 110. Shepherd, A. P. Intestinal O2 consumption and 86Rb extraction during arterial hypoxia. Am. J. Physiol. 234 (Endocrinol. Metab. Gastrointest. Physiol. 3): E248–E251, 1978.
 111. Stainsby, W. N., and A. B. Otis. Blood flow, blood oxygen tension, oxygen uptake, and oxygen transport in skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 206: 858–866, 1964.
 112. Stanek, K. A., F. J. Nagle, G. E. Bisgard, and W. C. Byrnes. Effect of hyperoxia on oxygen consumption in exercising ponies. J. Appl. Physiol. 46: 1115–1118, 1979.
 113. Tashkin, D. P., P. J. Goldstein, and D. H. Simmons. Hepatic lactate uptake during decreased liver perfusion and hypoxemia. Am. J. Physiol. 223: 968–974, 1972.
 114. Taunton, J. E., E. W. Banister, T. R. Patrick, P. Oforsagd, and W. R. Duncan. Physical work capacity in hyperbaric environments and conditions of hyperoxia. J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 421–427, 1970.
 115. Tenney, S. M. A theoretical analysis of the relationship between venous blood and mean tissue oxygen pressures. Respir. Physiol. 20: 283–296, 1974.
 116. Tibes, U., and J. Stegemann. Das Verhalten der endexpir‐atorischen Atemgasdrucke, der O2‐Aufnahme, und CO2‐abgabe nach einfacher Apnoe im Wasser, an Land und apnoeischem Tauchen. Pfluegers Arch. 311: 300–311, 1969.
 117. Wagner, P. D., R. B. Lararuso, R. R. Uhl, and J. B. West. Continuous distributions of ventilation‐perfusion ratios in normal subjects breathing air and 100% O2. J. Clin. Invest. 54: 54–68, 1974.
 118. Weglicki, W. B., R. E. Whalen, H. K. Thompson, Jr., and H. D. McIntosh. Effects of hyperbaric oxygenation on excess lactate production in exercising dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 210: 473–477, 1966.
 119. Weiss, H. R., J. A. Cohen, and L. A. McPherson. Blood flow and relative tissue Po2 of brain and muscle: effect of various gas mixtures. Am. J. Physiol. 230: 839–844, 1976.
 120. Welch, H. G., F. Bonde‐Petersen, T. Graham, K. Klausen, and N. Secher. Effects of hyperoxia on leg blood flow and metabolism during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 42: 385–390, 1977.
 121. Welch, H. G., and P. K. Pedersen. Measurement of metabolic rate in hyperoxia. J. Appl. Physiol. 51: 725–731, 1981.
 122. Whalen, R. E., H. A. Saltzman, D. H. Holloway, Jr., H. D. McIntosh, H. O. Sieker, and I. W. Brown, Jr. Cardiovascular and blood gas responses to hyperbaric oxygenation. Am. J. Cardiol. 15: 638–646, 1965.
 123. Whalen, W. J., D. Buerk, and C. A. Thuning. Blood flow‐limited oxygen consumption in resting cat skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 224: 763–768, 1973.
 124. Wilson, B. A., and W. N. Stainsby. Effects of O2 breathing on R.Q., blood flow, and developed tension in in situ dog muscle. Med. Sci. Sports 10: 167–170, 1978.
 125. Wilson, B. A., H. G. Welch, and J. N. Liles. Effects of hyperoxic gas mixtures on energy metabolism during prolonged work. J. Appl. Physiol. 39: 267–271, 1975.
 126. Zapol, W. M., G. C. Liggins, R. C. Schneider, L. Qvist, M. T. Snider, R. K. Creasy, and P. W. Hochachka. Regional blood flow during simulated diving in the conscious Weddell seal. J. Appl. Physiol. 47: 968–973, 1979.
 127. Zborowska‐Sluis, D. T., and J. B. Dossetor. Hyperlactatemia of hyperventilation. J. Appl. Physiol. 22: 746–755, 1967.
 128. Zimpfer, M., S. P. Sit, and S. F. Vatner. Effects of anesthesia on the canine carotid chemoreceptor reflex. Circ. Res. 48: 400–406, 1981.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Stephen M. Cain. Gas Exchange in Hypoxia, Apnea, and Hyperoxia. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 13: Handbook of Physiology, The Respiratory System, Gas Exchange: 403-420. First published in print 1987. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp030419