Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Endocrinological and Metabolic Responses to Acute and Chronic Heat Exposures

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation
1.1 Hydration Levels
1.2 Acclimation/Acclimatization
1.3 Sedentary Heat Exposure
1.4 Exercise in the Heat
1.5 Comparative Studies
2 Anterior Pituitary
2.1 Growth Hormone
2.2 Prolactin
2.3 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Adrenocorticotropin
2.4 Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone
2.5 Follicle‐Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone
3 Posterior Pituitary
3.1 Arginine Vasopressin
3.2 Oxytocin
4 Thyroid and Metabolism
5 Sympathoadrenomedullary System
6 Hypothalamic Oligopeptides
7 Pancreatic Hormones
8 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
9 Conclusion
 1. Aarseth, H. P., I. Eide, B. Skeie, and E. Thaulow. Heat stroke in endurance exercise. Acta. Med. Scand. 220: 279–283, 1986.
 2. Adlerkreutz, H., K. Kosunen, K. Kuoppasalmi, A. Pakarinen, and S. L. Karonen. Plasma hormones during exposure to intense heat. In: Proc. XIII Cong. Int. Med., edited by A. Louhija, and V. Valtonen. Basel: Karger, 1977, p. 346–355.
 3. Adlerkreutz, H., K. Kuoppasalmi, K. Kosunen, A. Pakarinen, and S. L. Karonen. Plasma Cortisol, growth hormone (GH), and prolactin levels during exposure to intense heat. IRCS Med. Sci. 4: 546, 1976.
 4. Aharon, M., Y. Graziani, and R. Chayoth. The effect of glucagon and prostaglandin E1 on cyclic AMP levels in livers of heat exposed hamsters. Acta Endocrinol. 93: 475–478, 1980.
 5. Amir, S., and E. DeBlasio. Activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis by chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus. Brain Res. 563: 349–352, 1991.
 6. Arad, Z., S. S. Arnason, A. Chadwick, and E. Skadhauge. Osmotic and hormonal responses to heat and dehydration in the fowl. J. Comp. Physiol. [B] 155: 227–234, 1985.
 7. Arieli, A., and A. Chinet. Brown adipose tissue heat production in heat acclimated and perchlorate treated rats. Horm. Metab. Res. 17: 12–15, 1985.
 8. Arieli, A., and A. Chinet. Thyroid status and noradrenaline‐induced regulatory thermogenesis in heat acclimated rats. Horm. Metab. Res. 18: 103–106, 1986.
 9. Armstrong, L. E., R. P. Francesconi, W. J. Kraemer, N. Leva, J. P. DeLuca, and R. W. Hubbard. Plasma Cortisol, renin, and aldosterone during an intense heat acclimation program. Int. J. Sports Med. 10: 38–42, 1989.
 10. Armstrong, L. E., R. W. Hubbard, E. W. Askew, and R. P. Francesconi. The effects of consuming 8g and 4g of sodium chloride per day on physiologic, clinical, and fluid‐electrolyte responses during 10 days of exercise‐heat exposure. In: Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments. Washington, DC: Committee on Military Nutrition Research, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, p. 247–258, 1993.
 11. Armstrong, L. E., R. W. Hubbard, P. C. Szlyk, I. V. Sils, and W. J. Kraemer. Heat intolerance, heat exhaustion monitored: a case report. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 59: 262–266, 1988.
 12. Augustinsson, O., H. Hoist, M. Forsgren, H. Andersson, and B. Andersson. Influence of heat exposure on acid/base and fluid balance in hyperhydrated goats. Acta Physiol. Scand. 126: 499–503, 1986.
 13. Baccari, F., H. D. Johnson, and G. L. Hahn. Environmental heat: effects on growth, plasma T3, and postheat compensatory effects on Holstein calves. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 172: 312–318, 1983.
 14. Bailey, R. E., D. Bartos, F. Bartos, A. Castro, R. L. Dobson, D. P. Grettie, R. Kraemer, D. Macfarlane, and K. Sato. Activation of aldosterone and renin secretion by thermal stress. Experientia 28: 159–160, 1972.
 15. Bakharev, V. D., A. T. Mar'yanovich, I. B. Slyusar, L. A. Levkin, O. S. Pansuevich, and G. I. Chipens. Effect of arginine‐vaso‐pressin neuropeptide on human tolerance of a hot dry environment. Fiziol. Cheloveka 9: 819–827, 1983.
 16. Bedrak, E., and Z. Chap. Serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and the hypothalamic content of gonadotrophic releasing hormone in male rats exposed to 35°C. J. Endocrinol. 84: 9–16, 1980.
 17. Bell, A. W., B. W. McBride, R. Slepetis, R. J. Early, and W. B. Currie. Chronic heat stress and prenatal development in sheep. I. Conceptus growth and maternal plasma hormones and metab olites. J. Anim. Sci. 67: 3289–3299, 1989.
 18. Berlyne, G. M., J. P. M. Finberg, and C. Yoran. The effect of β‐adrenoceptor blockade on body temperature and plasma renin activity in heat‐exposed man. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1: 307–312, 1974.
 19. Birrenkott, G. P., and A. R. Ezzat. Response of broilers and capons to heat stress following adrenal manipulation. Poult. Sci. 62: 702–704, 1983.
 20. Bonner, R. M., M. H. Harrison, C. J. Hall, and R. J. Edwards. Effects of heat acclimatization on intravascular responses to acute heat stress in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 41: 708–713, 1976.
 21. Bottje, W. G., and P. C. Harrison. Alpha adrenergic regulation of celiac blood flow and plasma catecholamine response during acute heat stress in fed cockerels. Poult. Sci. 65: 1598–1605, 1986.
 22. Bowen, S. J., K. W. Washburn, and T. M. Huston. Involvement of the thyroid gland in the response of young chickens to heat stress. Poult. Sci. 63: 66–69, 1984.
 23. Brandenberger, G., V. Candas, M. Follenius, and J. M. Kahn. The influence of the initial state of hydration on endocrine response to exercise in the heat. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 674–679, 1989.
 24. Brandenberger, G., V. Candas, M. Follenius, J. P. Libert, and J. M. Kahn. Vascular fluid shifts and endocrine responses to exercise in the heat. Effect of rehydration. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 55: 123–129, 1986.
 25. Brandenberger, G., M. Follenius, J. DiNisi, J. P. Libert, and C. Simen. Amplification of nocturnal oscillations in PRA and aldosterone during continuous heat exposure. J. Appl. Physiol. 66: 1280–1286, 1989.
 26. Brandenberger, G., M. Follenius, and S. Oyono. Responses of anterior pituitary hormones to heat exposure. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 2: 297–298, 1979.
 27. Brandenberger, G., M. Follenius, and S. Oyono. Effect of propranolol on aldosterone response to heat exposure in sodium‐restricted men. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 4: 395–400, 1980.
 28. Braun, W. E., J. T. Maher, and R. F. Byrom. Effect of exogenous d‐aldosterone on heat acclimatization in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 23: 341–346, 1967.
 29. Brisson, G. R., F. Peronnet, H. Perrault, P. Boisvert, D. Massicotte, and R. Gareau. Prolactinotrophic effect of endogenous and exogenous heat loads in human male adults. J. Appl. Physiol. 70: 1351–1355, 1991.
 30. Brooks, D. P., and J. R. Claybaugh. Role of dopamine in the angiotensin II‐induced vasopressin release in the conscious dehydrated dog. J. Endocrinol. 94: 243–249, 1982.
 31. Bunner, D. L., E. Morris, and R. C. Smallridge. Orcadian growth hormone and prolactin blood concentration during a self‐limited viral infection and artificial hyperthermia in man. Metabolism 33: 337–341, 1984.
 32. Carpenter, A. J., and S. A. Nunnely. Endogenous hormones subtly alter women's response to heat stress. J. Appl. Physiol. 65: 2313–2317, 1988.
 33. Cassuto, Y., R. Chayoth, and U. Zor. Carbohydrate metabolism of heat acclimated hamsters. IV. Hormonal control. Am. J. Physiol. 227: 851–853, 1974.
 34. Chayoth, R. Role of 3,5,3'‐triiodothyronine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP in the control of liver gluconeogenesis in fasted and non‐fasted heat‐acclimated hamsters. Israel J. Med. Sci. 11: 1221, 1975.
 35. Chayoth, R. Carbohydrate metabolism of heat‐acclimated hamsters. V. Control of gluconeogenesis. J. Appl. Physiol. 41: 871–873, 1976.
 36. Chayoth, R., M. Aharon, and Y. Graziani. Protein kinase activity in liver of heat acclimated hamsters. J. Appl. Physiol. 53: 716–718, 1982.
 37. Christman, J. V., and C. V. Gisolfi. Effects of repeated heat exposure in hypothalamic sensitivity to norepinephrine. J. Appl. Physiol. 49: 942–945, 1980.
 38. Christman, J. V., and C. V. Gisolfi. Heat acclimation: role of norepinephrine on the anterior hypothalamus. J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 1923–1928, 1985
 39. Clark, W. G. Effects of opioid peptides on thermoregulation. Federation Proc. 40: 2754–2759, 1981.
 40. Clark, W. G., G. L. Bernardini, and S. W. Ponder. Extreme hyperthermia induced in cats by the enkephalin analog FK 33–824. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 16: 989–993, 1982.
 41. Cochrane, L. A., J. A. Davies, R. J. Edwards, and M. H. Harrison. Some adrenocortical responses to heat acclimatization. J. Physiol. 301: 32–33, 1979.
 42. Collier, R. J., D. K. Beede, W. W. Thatcher, L. A. Israel, and C. J. Wilcox. Influences of environment and its modification on dairy animal health and production. J. Dairy Sci. 65: 2213–2227, 1982.
 43. Collins, K. J. The endocrine component of human adaptation to cold and heat. In: Environmental Endocrinology, edited by I. Assenmacher, and D. S. Farner. New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1978, p. 294–301.
 44. Collins, K. J., J. D. Few, and J. P. M. Finberg. Metabolic clearance rate of Cortisol and aldosterone during controlled hyperthermia in man. J. Physiol. 268: 7P–8P, 1977.
 45. Collins, K. J., and J. S. Weiner. Endocrinological aspects of exposure to high environmental temperatures. Physiol. Rev. 48: 785–839, 1968.
 46. Consolazio, C. F., H. L. Johnson, T. A. Daws, and R. A. Nelson. Energy requirements and metabolism during exposure to extreme environments. World Rev. Nutr. Diet 18: 177–194, 1973.
 47. Convertino, V. A., J. E. Greenleaf, and E. M. Bernauer. Role of thermal and exercise factors in the mechanism of hypervolemia. J. Appl. Physiol. 48: 657–664, 1980.
 48. Convertino, V. A., L. C. Keil, E. M. Bernauer, and J. E. Greenleaf. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 50: 123–128, 1981.
 49. Convertino, V. A., L. C. Keil, and J. E. Greenleaf. Plasma volume, renin, and vasopressin responses to graded exercise after training. J. Appl. Physiol. 54: 508–514, 1983.
 50. Convertino, V. A., and C. R. Kirby. Expansion of total body water following heat acclimation. Physiologist 27: 230, 1984.
 51. Costill, D. L., G. Branam, W. Fink, and R. Nelson. Exercise‐induced sodium conservation: changes in plasma renin and aldosterone. Med. Sci. Sports 8: 209–213, 1976.
 52. Costrini, A. M., H. A. Pitt, A. B. Gustafson, and D. E. Uddin. Cardiovascular and metabolic manifestations of heat stroke and severe heat exhaustion. Am. J. Med. 66: 296–302, 1979.
 53. Davidovic, D., V. Ratkovic, and S. Tatic. Tolerance to heat of rats treated by beta blocker: role of submaxillary salivary glands. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 93: 291–298, 1985.
 54. Davies, J. A., M. H. Harrison, L. A. Cochrane, R. J. Edwards, and T. M. Gibson. Effect of saline loading during heat acclimatization on adrenocortical hormone levels. J. Appl. Physiol. 50: 605–612, 1981.
 55. Dill, D. B., E. F. Adolph, and C. G. Wilber. Handbook of Physiology. Adaptation to the Environment, edited by D. B. Dill, and E. F. Adolph. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc. 1964.
 56. Doi, K., and A. Kuroshima. Modified metabolic responsiveness to glucagon in cold‐acclimated and heat‐acclimated rats. Life Sci. 30: 785–791, 1982.
 57. Donkoh, A. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens. Int. J. Biometeor. 33: 259–265, 1989.
 58. Drinkwater, B. L., J. E. Denton, E. C. Kupprat, T. S. Talag, and S. M. Horvath. Aerobic power as a factor in women's response to work in hot environments. J. Appl. Physiol. 41: 815–821, 1976.
 59. Dumoulin, G., N. U. Nguyen, M. T. Henriet, J. Bopp, and S. Berthelay. Variations des electrolytes plasmatiques et de leurs hormones de regulation, lors d'une exposition aigue a la chaleur. Etude au cours du sauna finlandais chez l'homme. Compt. Rend. Sean. Soc. Biol. 174: 146–150, 1980.
 60. Eisman, M. M., and L. B. Rowell. Renal vascular response to heat stress in baboons—role of renin angiotensin. J. Appl. Physiol. 43: 739–746, 1977.
 61. El‐Nouty, F. D., I. M. Elbanna, T. P. Davis, and H. D. Johnson. Aldosterone and ADH response to heat and dehydration in cattle. J. Appl. Physiol. 48: 249–255, 1980.
 62. Epstein, Y., M. Horowitz, and Y. Shapiro. Hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic–limbic system vasopressin concentration under exposure to hyperosmolarity, hypovolemia, and heat stress. J. Therm. Biol. 15: 177–182, 1990.
 63. Epstein, Y., R. Udassin, and J. Sack. Serum 3,5,3'‐triiodothyronine and 3,3',5'‐triidothyronine concentrations during acute heat load. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 49: 677–678, 1979.
 64. Escourrou, P., P. R. Freund, L. B. Rowell, and D. G. Johnson. Splanchnic vasoconstriction in heat‐stressed men: role of renin–angiotensin system. J. Appl. Physiol. 52: 1438–1443, 1982.
 65. Faichney, G. J., and T. N. Barry. Effects of mild heat exposure and suppression of prolactin secretion on gastro‐intestinal tract function and temperature regulation in sheep. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 39: 85–97, 1986.
 66. Fasciolo, J. C., G. T. Totel, and R. E. Johnson. Antidiuretic hormone and human eccrine sweating. J. Appl. Physiol. 27: 303–307, 1969.
 67. Fellmann, N. Hormone and plasma volume alterations following endurance exercise. A brief review. Sports Med. 13: 37–49, 1992.
 68. Few, J. D., and D. E. Worsley. Human pituitary–adrenal response to hyperthermia. J. Endocrinol. 66: 141–142, 1975.
 69. Finberg, J. P. M., and G. M. Berlyne. Renin and aldosterone secretion following acute environmental heat exposure. Israel J. Med. Sci. 12: 844–847, 1976.
 70. Finberg, J. P. M., and G. M. Berlyne. Modification of renin and aldosterone response to heat by acclimation in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 42: 554–558, 1977.
 71. Finberg, J. P. M., M. Katz, H. Gazit, and G. M. Berlyne. Plasma renin activity after acute heat exposure in nonacclimatized and naturally acclimatized man. J. Appl. Physiol. 36: 519–523, 1974.
 72. Flowers, B., and B. N. Day. Alterations in gonadotropin secretion and ovarian function in prepubertal gilts by elevated environmental temperature. Biol. Reprod. 42: 465–471, 1990.
 73. Follenius, M., and G. Brandenberger. Increase in atrial natriuretic peptide in response to physical exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 57: 259–262, 1988.
 74. Follenius, M., G. Brandenberger, S. Oyono, and V. Candas. Cortisol as a sensitive index of heat intolerance. Physiol. Behav. 29: 509–513, 1982.
 75. Follenius, M., G. Brandenberger, B. Reinhardt, and M. Simeoni. Plasma aldosterone, renin activity and Cortisol: responses to heat exposure in sodium depleted and repleted subjects. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 41: 41–50, 1979.
 76. Follenius, M., G. Brandenberger, M. Simeoni, and B. Reinhardt. Plasma aldosterone, prolactin and ACTH: relationships in man during heat exposure. Horm. Metab. Res. 11: 180–181, 1979.
 77. Follenius, M., V. Candas, B. Bothorel, and G. Brandenberger. Effect of rehydration on atrial natriuretic peptide release during exercise in the heat. J. Appl. Physiol. 66: 2516–2521, 1989.
 78. Fortney, S. M., V. A. Koivisto, P. Felig, and E. R. Nadel. Circulatory and temperature regulatory responses to exercise in a warm environment in insulin‐dependent diabetics. Yale J. Biol. Med. 54: 101–109, 1981.
 79. Francesconi, R. P. Endocrinological responses to exercise in stressful environments. Exerc. Sports Sci. Rev. 16: 255–284, 1988.
 80. Francesconi, R., L. Armstrong, N. Leva, R. Moore, P. Szlyk, W. Matthew, W. Curtis, Jr., R. Hubbard, and E. W. Askew. Endocrinological responses to dietary salt restriction during heat acclimation. In: Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments. Washington, DC: National Research Council, National Academy Press, p. 259–275, 1993.
 81. Francesconi, R. P., and R. W. Hubbard. Chronic low‐sodium diet in rats: responses to severe heat exposure. J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 152–156, 1985.
 82. Francesconi, R. P., J. T. Maher, J. W. Mason, and G. D. Bynum. Hormonal responses of sedentary and exercising men to recurrent heat exposure. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 49: 1102–1106, 1978.
 83. Francesconi, R. P., M. N. Sawka, R. C. Dennis, R. R. Gonzalez, A. J. Young, and C. R. Valeri. Autologous red blood cell reinfusion: effects on stress and fluid regulatory hormones during exercise in the heat. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 59: 133–137, 1988.
 84. Francesconi, R. P., M. N. Sawka, R. W. Hubbard, and M. Mager. Acute albumin‐induced plasma volume expansion and exercise in the heat: effects on hormonal responses in men. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 51: 121–128, 1983.
 85. Francesconi, R. P., M. N. Sawka, R. W. Hubbard, and K. B. Pandolf. Hormonal regulation of fluid and electrolytes: effects of heat exposure and exercise in the heat. In: Hormonal Regulation of Fluid and Electrolytes, Edited by J. R. Claybaugh, and C. E. Wade. New York: Plenum, 1989, p. 45–85.
 86. Francesconi, R. P., M. N. Sawka, and K. B. Pandolf. Hypohydration and heat acclimation: plasma renin and aldosterone during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 55: 1790–1794, 1983.
 87. Francesconi, R. P., M. N. Sawka, and K. B. Pandolf. Hypohydration and acclimation: effects on hormone responses to exercise/heat stress. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 55: 365–369, 1984.
 88. Francesconi, R. P., M. N. Sawka, K. B. Pandolf, R. W. Hubbard, A. J. Young, and S. Muza. Plasma hormonal responses at graded hypohydration levels during exercise‐heat stress. J. Appl. Physiol. 59: 1855–1860, 1985.
 89. Francesconi, R. P., P. C. Szlyk, I. V. Sils, N. Leva, and R. W. Hubbard. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone: correlations with moderate hypohydration. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 60: 1172–1177, 1989.
 90. Francis, K. T., and R. MacGregor. III. Effect of exercise in the heat on plasma renin and aldosterone with either water or a potassium‐rich electrolyte solution. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 49: 461–465, 1978.
 91. Fraser, H. M., and A. S. McNeilly. Effect of chronic immunoneutralization of TRH on the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis prolactin and reproductive function in the ewe. Endocrinology 111: 1964–1973, 1982
 92. Galbo, H. The hormonal response to exercise. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 44: 257–266, 1985.
 93. Galbo, H., M. E. Houston, N. J. Christensen, J. J. Hoist, B. Nielsen, E. Nygaard, and J. Suzuki. The effect of water temperature on the hormonal response to prolonged swimming. Acta Physiol. Scand. 105: 326–337, 1979.
 94. Gale, C. C. Neuroendocrine aspects of thermoregulation. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 35: 391–430, 1973.
 95. Geelen, G., L. C. Keil, S. E. Kravik, C. E. Wade, T. N. Thrasher, P. R. Barnes, G. Pyke, C. Nesvig, and J. E. Greenleaf. Inhibition of plasma vasopressin after drinking in dehydrated humans. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 18): R968–R971, 1984.
 96. Gertner, A., R. Israeli, A. Lev, and Y. Cassuto. Thyroid hormones in chronic heat exposed men. Int. J. Biometeorol. 27: 75–82, 1983.
 97. Geyssant, A., G. Geelen, C. Denis, A. M. Allevard, M. Vincent, E. Jarsaillon, C. A. Bizollon, J. R. Lacour, and C. Gharib. Plasma vasopressin, renin activity, and aldosterone: effect of exercise and training. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 46: 21–30, 1981.
 98. Gibinski, K., S. Kozlowski, J. Chwalbinska‐Monetta, L. Giec, J. Zmudzinski, and A. A. Markiewicz. ADH and thermal sweating. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 42: 1–13, 1979.
 99. Graham, A. D., and R. J. Christopherson. Effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline in the heat production of warm‐ and cold‐acclimated sheep. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 59: 985–993, 1981.
 100. Greenleaf, J. E., P. J. Brock, L. C. Keil, and J. T. Morse. Drinking and water balance during exercise and heat acclimation. J. Appl. Physiol. 54: 414–419, 1983.
 101. Greenleaf, J. E., P. J. Brock, D. Sciaraffa, A. Polese, and R. Elizondo. Effects of exercise‐heat acclimation on fluid electrolyte and endocrine responses during tilt and positive linear acceleration in women and men. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 56: 683–689, 1985.
 102. Greenleaf, J. E., and C. J. Greenleaf. Human Acclimation and Acclimatization to Heat. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Technical Memorandum TM X‐62008, NASA, Ames Research Center, 1970.
 103. Greenleaf, J. E., and H. Kaciuba‐Uscilko. Acclimatization to Heat in Humans. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Technical Memorandum 101011, NASA, Ames Research Center, 1989.
 104. Gutkowska, J., G. Thibault, R. W. Milne, P. Januszewicz, P. W. Schiller, M. Cantin, and J. Genest. Radioimmunoassay of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in rat atria. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 176: 105–108, 1984.
 105. Guyton, A. C. The pituitary hormones and their control by the hypothalamus. In Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1986, p. 884–889.
 106. Haldy, P., and J. Muller. Stimulation of the conversion of corticosterone to aldosterone by sodium and water depletion of potassium‐deficient rats. Comparison of different experimental procedures. Acta Endocrinol. 96: 519–526, 1981.
 107. Harri, M. N. E. Metabolic effects of repeated short term exposures to heat in the rat. Med. Biol. 55: 330–333, 1977.
 108. Harrison, M. H. Effects of acute heat stress on tissue carbohydrate in fasted rats. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 47: 165–167, 1976.
 109. Harrison, M. H. Effects of thermal stress and exercise on blood volume in humans. Physiol. Rev. 65: 149–209, 1985.
 110. Hartung, G. H., L. G. Myhre, D. M. Tucker, and J. W. Burns. Hormone and energy substrate changes during prolonged exercise in the heat. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 58: 24–28, 1987.
 111. Hensel, H., and G. Hildebrandt. Organ systems in adaptation: the nervous system. In: Handbook of Physiology. Adaptation to the Environment, Edited by D. B. Dill, and E. F. Adolph. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc. 1964, p. 55–72.
 112. Holaday, J. W., E. Wei, H. H. Loh, and C. H. Li. Endorphins may function in heat adaptation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 2923–2927, 1978
 113. Hooley, R. D., J. K. Findlay, and R. G. Stephenson. Effect of heat stress on plasma concentrations of prolactin and luteinizing hormone in ewes. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 32: 231–235, 1979.
 114. Hubbard, R. W., W. T. Matthew, D. Horstman, R. P. Francesconi, M. Mager, and M. N. Sawka. Albumin‐induced plasma volume expansion: diurnal and temperature effects. J. Appl. Physiol. 56: 1361–1368, 1984.
 115. Huidobro‐Toro, J. P., and E. L. Way. Studies on the hyperthermic response of β‐endorphin in mice. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 211: 50–58, 1979.
 116. Ikawa, S., M. Suzuki, and M. Shiota. Effect of sports beverage intake after a sauna bath on water‐electrolyte balance. Jpn. J. Phys. Fitness Sports Med. 34: 1–10, 1985.
 117. Januszewicz, P., J. Gutkowska, G. Thibault, R. Garcia, C. Mercure, F. Jolicoeur, J. Genest, and M. Cantin. Dehydration‐induced changes in the secretion of atrial natriuretic factor in Brattleboro rats: effect of water‐drinking. Neurosci. Lett. 67: 203–207, 1986.
 118. Januszewicz, P., P. Larose, H. Ong, J. Gutkowska, J. Genest, and M. Cantin. Effect of atrial natriuretic factor on plasma vasopressin in conscious rats. Peptides 7: 989–993, 1986.
 119. Januszewicz, P., G. Thibault, J. Gutkowska, R. Garcia, C. Mercure, F. Jolicoeur, J. Genest, and M. Cantin. Atrial natriuretic factor and vasopressin during dehydration and rehydration in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 251 (Endocrinol. Metab. 14): E497–E501, 1986.
 120. John, T. M., and J. C. George. Blood levels of cyclic AMP, thyroxine, uric acid, certain metabolites and electrolytes under heat‐stress and dehydration in the pigeon. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. 85: 571–582, 1977.
 121. Jokinen, E., I. Valimaki, J. Marniemi, A. Seppanen, K. Irjala, and O. Simell. Children in sauna: hormonal adjustments to intensive short thermal stress. Acta Physiol. Scand. 142: 437–442, 1991.
 122. Kaciuba‐Uscilko, H., J. E. Greenleaf, S. Kozlowski, Z. Brzezinska, K. Nazar, and A. Ziemba. Thyroid hormone‐induced changes in body temperature and metabolism during exercise in dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 29: 260–264, 1975.
 123. Kaciuba‐Uscilko, H., B. Kruk, M. Szczpaczewska, B. Opaszowski, E. Stupnicka, B. Bicz, and K. Nazar. Metabolic, body temperature and hormonal responses to repeated periods of prolonged cycle‐ergometer exercise in men. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 64: 26–31, 1992.
 124. Kaplanski, J., E. Magal, U. A. Sod‐Moriah, N. Hirschmann, and I. Nir. The pineal and endocrine changes in heat‐exposed male hamsters. J. Neural Transm. 58: 261–270, 1983.
 125. Kaufman, F. L., D. E. Mills, R. L. Hughson, and G. T. Peake. Effects of bromocriptine on sweat gland function during heat acclimatization. Horm. Res. 29: 31–38, 1988.
 126. Kauppinen, K., and I. Vuori. Man in the sauna. Ann. Clin. Res. 18: 173–185, 1986.
 127. Kawashima, T., and H. Yano. The influence of heat exposure (34°C) on bone growth and the level of thyroid hormone in rats. Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci. 59: 67–74, 1988.
 128. Keil, L. C., and W. B. Severs. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress. Endocrinology 100: 30–38, 1977.
 129. Kelso, T. B., W. G. Herbert, F. C. Gwazdauskas, F. L. Goss, and J. L. Hess. Exercise thermregulatory stress and increased plasma β‐endorphin/β‐lipotropin in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 57: 444–449, 1984.
 130. Kendrick, K. M., C. DeLaRiva, M. Hinton, and B. A. Baldwin. Microdialysis measurement of monoamine and amino acid release from the medial preoptic region of the sheep in response to heat exposure. Brain Res. Bull. 22: 541–544, 1989.
 131. Kirby, C. R., and V. A. Convertino. Plasma aldosterone and sweat sodium concentration after exercise and heat acclimation. J. Appl. Physiol. 61: 967–970, 1986.
 132. Knochel, J. P. Environmental heat illness. Arch. Int. Med. 133: 841–864, 1974.
 133. Kok, R. Heat tolerance of Bantu undergoing acclimatization. S. Afr. Med. J. 47: 960, 1973.
 134. Konikoff, F., Y. Shoenfeld, A. Magazanik, Y. Epstein, and Y. Shapiro. Effects of salt loading during exercise in a hot, dry climate. Biomed. Pharmacother. 40: 296–300, 1986.
 135. Konits, P. H., B. P. Hamilton, E. S. Pruce, M. Whitacre, and D. H. VanEcho. Serum thyroid hormone changes during whole body hyperthermia. Cancer 54: 2432–2435, 1984.
 136. Kosunen, K. J., A. J. Pakarinen, K. Kuoppasalmi, and H. Adlerkreutz. Plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone during intense heat stress. J. Appl. Physiol. 41: 323–327, 1976.
 137. Kraemer, W. J., L. E. Armstrong, R. W. Hubbard, L. J. Marchitelli, N. Leva, P. B. Rock, and J. E. Dziados. Responses of plasma human atrial natriuretic factor to high intensity sub‐maximal exercise in the heat. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 57: 399–403, 1988.
 138. Kraemer, W. E., L. E. Armstrong, L. J. Marchitelli, R. W. Hubbard, and N. Leva. Plasma opioid responses during heat acclimation in humans. Peptides 8: 715–719, 1987.
 139. Krausz, S., J. Marder, and U. Eylath. Hormonal responses of dogs on exposure to high environmental temperatures. Horm. Metab. Res. 12: 482–483, 1980.
 140. Kregel, K. C., D. G. Johnson, C. M. Tipton, and D. R. Seals. Arterial baroreceptor reflex modulation of sympathetic‐cardiovascular adjustments to heat stress. Hypertension 15: 497–504, 1990.
 141. Kukkonen‐Harjula, K., P. Oja, K. Laustiola, I. Vuori, J. Jolkkonen, S. Siitonen, and H. L. Vapaata. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to heat exposure in a Finnish sauna bath. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 543–550, 1989.
 142. Kuroshima, A., M. Kurahashi, and T. Yahata. Calorigenic effects of nonadrenaline and glucagon on white adipocytes in cold‐acclimated and heat‐acclimated rats. Pflugers Arch. 381: 113–118, 1979.
 143. Kuroshima, A., and T. Yahata. Thermogenic responses of brown adipocytes to noradrenaline and glucagon in heat‐acclimated and cold‐acclimated rats. Jpn. J. Physiol. 29: 683–690, 1979.
 144. Kuroshima, A., T. Yahata, and T. Ohno. Changes in plasma glucagon levels to stressful environmental tempertures. Jpn. J. Physiol. 31: 43–52, 1981.
 145. Laatikainen, T., K. Salminen, A. Kohvakka, and J. Pettersson. Response of plasma endorphins, prolactin, and catecholamines in women to intense heat in a sauna. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 57: 98–102, 1988.
 146. Lahiri, P. Effect of chronic heat stress on adrenomedullary hormones and blood sugar response in the blue rock pigeon, Columba livia. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 20: 492–493, 1982.
 147. Laragh, J. H. The endocrine control of blood volume, blood pressure, and sodium balance: atrial hormone and renin system interactions. J. Hypertens. 4: S143–S156, 1986.
 148. Lee, J., R. L. Malvin, J. R. Claybaugh, and B. S. Huang. Atrial natriuretic factor inhibits vasopressin secretion in conscious sheep. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 185: 272–276, 1987.
 149. Leppaluoto, J., O. Arjamaa, O. Vuloteenaho, and H. Ruskoaho. Passive heat exposure leads to delayed increase in plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 71: 716–720, 1991.
 150. Leppaluoto, J., T. Ranta, U. Laisi, J. Partanen, P. Virkkunen, and H. Lybeck. Strong heat exposure and adenohypophyseal hormone secretion in man. Horm. Metab. Res. 7: 439–440, 1975.
 151. Leppaluoto, J., and H. Ruskoaho. Atrial natriuretic peptide in man: association to renin and aldosterone during sleep‐wake cycle, ethanol intake, and heat exposure. Pflugers Arch. 412: R93, 1988.
 152. Leppaluoto, J., P. Tapanainen, and M. Knip. Heat exposure elevates plasma immunoreactive growth hormone‐releasing hormone levels in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 65: 1035–1038, 1987
 153. Magal, E., J. Kaplanski, U. A. Sod‐Moriah, N. Hirschmann, and I. Nir. Effect of pinealectomy on heat‐induced endocrine changes in female rats. Horm. Res. 17: 222–227, 1983.
 154. Maher, J. T., D. E. Bass, D. D. Heistad, E. T. Angelakos, and L. H. Hartley. Effect of posture on acclimatization in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 33: 8–13, 1972.
 155. Marple, D. N., D. J. Jones, C. W. Alliston, and J. C. Forrest. Physiological and endocrinological changes in response to terminal heat stress in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 39: 79–82, 1974.
 156. May, J. D. Effect of dietary thyroid hormone on survival time during heat stress. Poult. Sci. 61: 706–709, 1982.
 157. May, J. D., J. W. Deaton, F. N. Reece, and S. L. Branton. Effect of acclimation and heat stress on thyroid hormone concentration. Poult. Sci. 65: 1211–1213, 1986.
 158. McCance, R. A., Y. Abu Rabiyah, G. Beer, O. G. Edholm, Z. Even‐Paz, R. Luff, and S. Samueloff. Have the Bedouin a special “desert” physiology? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 185: 263–271, 1974.
 159. McKell, D. C., and S. K. Quadri. The effects of heat stress on plasma catecholamines in the dog. Physiologist 27: 241, 1984.
 160. Melin, B., M. Cure, C. Jimenez, A. M. Allevard, G. Geelen, and C. Gharib. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and vasopressin during thermal dehydration in supine posture. Acta Physiol. Scand. 141: 227–230, 1991.
 161. Metzler, G. H., T. N. Thrasher, L. C. Keil, and D. J. Ramsay. Endocrine mechanisms regulating sodium excretion during water deprivation in dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 251 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 22): R560–R568, 1986.
 162. Mueller, G. P., H. T. Chen, J. A. Dibbet, H. J. Chen, and J. Meites. Effects of warm and cold temperatures on release of TSH, GH, and prolactin in rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 147: 698–700, 1974.
 163. Nunnely, S. A. Physiological responses of women to thermal stress: a review. Med. Sci. Sports 10: 250–255, 1978.
 164. Okada, Y., T. Matsuoka, and Y. Kumahara. Human growth hormone secretion during exposure to hot air in normal adult male subjects. J. Clin. Endocrinol. 34: 759–763, 1972.
 165. Orenstein, D. M., K. G. Henke, D. L. Costill, C. F. Doershuk, P. J. Lemon, and R. C. Stern. Exercise and heat stress in cystic fibrosis patients. Pediatr. Res. 17: 267–269, 1983.
 166. Paolone, A. M., A. O. Ajiduah, J. T. Troup, C. W. Stevens, and Z. V. Kendrick. The effects of age and heat stress on plasma renin activity and plasma volume during exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 15: 97–98, 1983.
 167. Parry, G. Organ systems in adaptation: the osmotic regulating system. In: Handbook of Physiology. Adaptation to the Environment, edited by D. B. Dill, and E. F. Adolph. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1964, p. 245–257.
 168. Perchick, J. S., A. Winkelstein, and R. K. Shadduck. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in heat stroke. JAMA 231: 480–483, 1975.
 169. Petrovic, V. M., V. Davidovic, and V. Janc‐Sibalic. Cathecholamine synthesis, release and excretion and adreno‐cortical activity in the heat‐stressed rat. In: Catecholamines and Stress, edited by E. Usdin. Oxford: Pergamon, 1976, p. 437–443.
 170. Petrovic, V. M., and K. Maksimovic. Adaptation to cold and diurnal fluctuation of the sensitivity to noradrenaline in the rat. Bull. Acad. Serb. Sci. Nat. Sci. 66: 81–86, 1979.
 171. Pilo, B., T. M. John, J. C. George, and R. J. Etches. Liver sodium potassium ATPase activity and circulating levels of corticosterone and thyroid hormones following cold and heat exposure in the pigeon, Columba liva. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 80A: 103–106 1985.
 172. Pittman, Q. J., T. J. Malkinson, N. W. Kasting, and W. L. Veale. Enhanced fever following castration: possible involvement of brain arginine vasopressin. Am. J. Physiol. 254 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 25): R513–R517, 1988.
 173. Polozhentsev, S. D., G. N. Novozhilov, K. V. Mazurov, and V. N. Denisov. Activity of the sympathico–adrenal system as an indicator of heat adaptation. Fiziol. Cheloveka. 4: 854–856, 1978.
 174. Poole, S., and J. D. Stephenson. Body temperature regulation and thermoneutrality in rats. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 62: 143–149, 1977.
 175. Powers, S. K., E. T. Howley, and R. Cox. A differential catecholamine response during prolonged exercise and passive heating. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 14: 435–439, 1982.
 176. Proppe, D. W. Control of plasma renin activity in heat‐stressed baboons on varied salt intake. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 1531–1537, 1987.
 177. Proppe, D. W. Effects of sodium depletion on peripheral vascular responses to heat stress in baboons. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 1538–1543, 1987.
 178. Putney, D. J., T. S. Gross, and W. W. Thatcher. Prostaglandin secretion by endometrium of pregnant and cyclic cattle at day 17 after oestrus in response to in vitro heat stress. J. Reprod. Fertil. 84: 475–483, 1988.
 179. Rabi, T., Y. Cassuto, and A. Gutman. Lipolysis in brown adipose tissue of cold‐ and heat‐acclimated hamsters. J. Appl. Physiol. A3: 1007–1011, 1977.
 180. Ramsay, D. J., T. N. Thrasher, and P. Bie. Endocrine components of body fluid homeostasis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 90: 777–780, 1988.
 181. Rocker, L., K. Kirsch, and B. Agrawal. Long‐term observations on plasma antidiuretic hormone levels during and after heat stress. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 49: 59–62, 1982.
 182. Ronnemaa, T., J. Marniemi, A. Leino, H. Karanko, P. Poukka, and K. A. Koivisto. Hormone response of diabetic patients to exercise at cool and warm temperatures. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 109–115, 1991.
 183. Rosak, C., H. P. Busch, P. H. Althoff, M. Bubring, E. Jungmann, W. Fossbinder, and K. Schoffling. Hormonal regulation of heat stress—influence of beta receptor blockade. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 12: 35, 1982.
 184. Ross, A. D., W. L. Bryden, W. Bakau, and L. W. Burgess. Induction of heat stress in beef cattle by feeding the ergots of Claviceps purpurea. Aust. Vet. J. 66: 247–249, 1989.
 185. Rousset, B., and M. Cure. Variations of rat thyroid activity during exposure to high environmental temperature (34°C). Pflugers Arch. 354: 101–15, 1975.
 186. Rousset, B., M. Cure, D. Jordan, A. Kervran, H. Bornet, and R. Mornex. Metabolic alterations induced by chronic heat exposure in the rat: the involvement of thyroid function. Pflugers Arch. 401: 64–70, 1984.
 187. Rousset, B., D. Jordan, M. Cure, G. Ponsin, and J. Orgiazzi. Regulation of TSH secretion in rats chronically exposed to heat (34°C). Pflugers Arch. 375: 177–181, 1978.
 188. Rudas, P., and G. Pethes. The importance of the peripheral thyroid hormone deiodination in adaptation to ambient temperature in the chicken (Gallus domesticus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 77: 567–571, 1984.
 189. Saini, J., B. Bothorel, G. Brandenberger, V. Candas, and M. Follenius. Growth hormone and prolactin response to rehydration during exercise: effect of water and carbohydrate solutions. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 61: 61–67, 1990.
 190. Sawka, M. N., R. C. Dennis, R. R. Gonzalez, A. J. Young, S. R. Muza, J. W. Martin, C. B. Wenger, R. P. Francesconi, K. B. Pandolf, and C. R. Valeri. Influence of polycythemia on blood volume and thermoregulation during exercise‐heat stress. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 912–918, 1987.
 191. Sawka, M. N., K. B. Pandolf, B. A. Avellini, and Y. Shapiro. Does heat acclimation lower the rate of metabolism elicited by muscular exercise? Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 54: 27–31, 1983.
 192. Schams, D., E. Stephan, and R. D. Hooley. The effect of heat exposure on blood serum levels of anterior pituitary hormones in calves, heifers, and bulls. Acta Endocrinol. 94: 309–314, 1980.
 193. Scheuer, D. A., T. N. Thrasher, L. C. Keil, and D. J. Ramsay. Mechanism of inhibition of renin response to hypotension by atrial natriurectic factor. Am. J. Physiol. 257 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 28): R194–R203, 1989.
 194. Scheuer, D. A., T. N. Thrasher, E. W. Quillen, Jr., C. H. Metzler, and D. J. Ramsay. Atrial natriuretic peptide blocks renin response to renal hypotension. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 23): R423–R427, 1987.
 195. Sciaraffa, D., S. C. Fox, R. Stockmann, and J. E. Greenleaf. Human Acclimation and Acclimatization to Heat: A Compendium of Research—1968–1978. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Technical Memorandum 81181, NASA, Ames Research Center, 1980.
 196. Sciaraffa, D., E. Shvartz, L. C. Keil, P. J. Brock, and J. E. Green‐leaf. Heat acclimation and resting blood pressure of normotensive men. Med. Sci. Sports 9: 51, 1977.
 197. Scoto, G. M., C. Spadaro, S. Spampinato, R. Arrigo‐Reina, and S. Ferri. Prostaglandins in the brain of rats given, acutely and chronically, a hyperthermic dose of met‐enkephalin. Psychopharmacology 60: 217–219, 1979.
 198. Senay, L. C. Changes in plasma volume and protein content during exposures of working men to various temperatures before and after acclimatization to heat: separation of the roles of cutaneous and skeletal muscle circulation. J. Physiol. 224: 61–81, 1972.
 199. Senay, L. C., and R. Kok. Body fluid responses of heat‐tolerant and intolerant men to work in a hot wet environment. J. Appl. Physiol. 40: 55–59, 1976.
 200. Senay, L. C., and W. Van Beaumont. Antidiuretic hormone and evaporative weight loss during heat stress. Pflugers Arch. 312: 82–90, 1969.
 201. Sestoft, L. Metabolic aspects of the calorigenic effect of thyroid hormone in mammals. Clin. Endocrinol. 13: 489–506, 1980.
 202. Share, L., and J. R. Claybaugh. Regulation of body fluids. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 34: 235–260, 1977.
 203. Shibolet, S., M. C. Lancaster, and Y. Danon. Heat stroke: a review. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 47: 280–301, 1976.
 204. Shvartz, E., D. Benor, and E. Sa'ar. Effect of acclimatization to severe heat on energy expenditure. Israel J. Med. Sci. 8: 1016, 1972.
 205. Shvartz, E., V. A. Convertino, L. C. Keil, and R. F. Haines. Orthostatic fluid and electrolyte and endocrine responses in fainters and non‐fainters. J. Appl. Physiol. 51: 1404–1410, 1981.
 206. Siegel, R. A., S. Feldman, N. Conforti, M. Ben‐David, and I. Chowers. PRL and ACTH secretion following acute heat exposure, in intact and in hypothalamic deafferentated male rats. Brain Res. 178: 459–466, 1979.
 207. Smiles, K. A., and S. Robinson. Sodium ion conservation during acclimatization of men to work in the heat. J. Appl. Physiol. 31: 63–69, 1971.
 208. Sod‐Moriah, U. A., and J. P. M. Finberg. Uterine responsiveness of oxytocin and prostaglandin F2 alpha in heat‐acclimated rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 74: 967–970, 1983.
 209. Stephenson, R. G., R. D. Hooley, J. K. Findlay, and P. S. Hopkins. Effects of heat stress on the lactation performance of ewes accustomed to tropical conditions and the total fluid intake of their lambs. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 33: 449–456, 1980.
 210. Sulman, F. G. Effect of heat stress on release of catecholamines, serotonin, and other hormones. In: IV International Congress on Pharmacology. Schwabe, Basel, 1969, p. 395.
 211. Sulman, F. G., Y. Pfeifer, and E. Superstine. Adrenal medullary exhaustion from tropical winds and its management. Israel J. Med. Sci. 9: 1022–1027, 1973
 212. Sulman, F. G., Y. Pfeifer, and E. Superstine. The adrenal exhaustion syndrome: an adrenal deficiency. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 301: 918–930, 1977.
 213. Szczepanska‐Sadowska, E. Plasma ADH increase and thirst suppression elicited by preoptic heating in the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 226: 155–161, 1974.
 214. Taipanainen, P. Evaluation of growth hormone secretion and therapy. Acta Univ. Oulu Med. 190: 1–98, 1989.
 215. Takahashi, H., H. Murata, and H. Matsumoto. Secretory responses of plasma insulin, glucagon, Cortisol and glucose to heat exposure in calves. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 48: 1287–1289, 1986.
 216. Tal, E., and F. G. Sulman. Dehydroepiandrosterone‐induced thyrotropin release during heat stress in rats. J. Endocrinol. 67: 99–103, 1975.
 217. Thrasher, T. N., C. E. Wade, L. C. Keil, and D. J. Ramsay. Sodium balance and aldosterone during dehydration and rehydration in the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 18): R76–R83, 1984.
 218. Tromp, S. W. Weather, climate, and man. In: Handbook of Physiology. Adaptation to the Environment. edited by D. B. Dill, and E. F. Adolph. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1964, p. 283–293.
 219. Tseng, L.‐F., and C. H. Li. β‐endorphin: hyperthermia in mice by intravenous injection. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 15: 471–474, 1980.
 220. Vaught, L. W., D. E. Monty, and W. C. Koote. Effect of summer heat on serum luteinizing hormone and progesterone values in Holstein‐Friesian cows in Arizona. Am. J. Vet. Res. 38: 1027–1030, 1977
 221. von Ameln, H., M. Laniado, L. Rocker, and K. A. Kirsch. Effects of dehydration on the vasopressin response to immersion. J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 114–120, 1985.
 222. Wade, C. E. Response, regulation, and action of vasopressin during exercise: a review. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 16: 506–511, 1984.
 223. Wade, C. E., and B. J. Freund. Hormonal control of blood volume during and following exercise. In: Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. Fluid Homeostasis During Exercise, edited by C. V. Gisolfi, and D. R. Lamb. Carmel, IN: Benchmark, 1990, vol. 3, p. 207–245.
 224. Wang, S., W. G. Bottje, S. Kinzler, H. L. Neldon, and T. I. Koike. Effect of heat stress on plasma levels of arginine vasotocin and mesotocin in domestic fowl. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 93: 721–724, 1989.
 225. Weitzman, E. D., C. Nogeire, M. Perlow, D. Fukushima, J. Sassin, P. McGregor, T. F. Gallagher, and L. Hellman. Effects of a prolonged 3—hour sleep‐wake cycle on sleep stages, plasma Cortisol, growth hormone and body temperature in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 38: 1018–1030, 1974
 226. Wells, C. L., and A. M. Paolone. Metabolic responses to exercise in three thermal environments. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 48: 989–993, 1977.
 227. Wyndham, C. H., A. J. Benade, G. G. Williams, N. B. Strydom, A. Goldin, and A. J. Heyns. Changes in central circulation and body fluid spaces during acclimatization to heat. J. Appl. Physiol. 25: 586–593, 1968.
 228. Wyndham, C. H., N. B. Strydom, A. J. Van Rensburg, A. J. Benade, and A. J. Heyns. Relation between Vo2max and body temperature in hot, humid heat. J. Appl. Physiol. 29: 45–50, 1970.
 229. Yoshimura, M., S. Hori, and H. Yoshimura. Effect of high‐fat diet on thermal acclimatization with special reference to thyroid activity. Jpn. J. Physiol. 22: 517–531, 1972.
 230. Young, A. J., M. N. Sawka, L. Levine, B. S. Cadarette, and K. B. Pandolf. Skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise is influ enced by heat acclimation. J. Appl. Physiol. 59: 1929–1935, 1985
 231. Zvi, Z. B., and J. Kaplanski. Effects of chronic heat exposure on drug metabolism in the rat. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 32: 368–369, 1980.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Ralph P. Francesconi. Endocrinological and Metabolic Responses to Acute and Chronic Heat Exposures. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 14: Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology: 245-260. First published in print 1996. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp040112