Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Intestinal Adaptation to Environmental Stress

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 The Gastrointestinal System and its Ability to Respond to Environmental Stress and Injury
1.1 Immune Defense Mechanisms
1.2 Other Defense Mechanisms
2 Geophysical Environment
2.1 Environmental Temperature
2.2 Altitude
2.3 Industrial Contaminants of the Food Chain
3 Personal Life‐Style
3.1 Physical Activity and Exercise
3.2 Starvation
3.3 Luminal Environment and Diet
3.4 Gender Differences
3.5 Changes in the Gastrointestinal Tract in the Aged
4 Summary
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Peter J Horvath, Milton M Weiser. Intestinal Adaptation to Environmental Stress. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 14: Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology: 1467-1485. First published in print 1996. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp040265