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Neuroimmunomodulation: Neuroimmune Interactions with the Environment

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The sections in this article are:

1 Preface
2 Integrative Physiology of Neuroimmunomodulation (NIM)
2.1 Environmental Stimuli (“Stressors”) and Immunity
2.2 Gravitational and Positional Stimuli
3 Endo‐ and Exoenvironmental Rhythms
4 Conditioning and NIM
5 Conclusions
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Continuously interacting spheres of physiological functions: all are interacting continuously with the external and internal environments.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Outline of the internal circuitry in response to and interaction with triggers (stimuli that reach physiological thresholds) from the external and internal environments. Among the factors not shown in this cartoon are the conditions of the substrate (nutrition, chronome: genome, etc.) and the ever‐changing conditions of the external and internal environments.

Modified from Spector [151], with permission

Figure 1.

Continuously interacting spheres of physiological functions: all are interacting continuously with the external and internal environments.

Figure 2.

Outline of the internal circuitry in response to and interaction with triggers (stimuli that reach physiological thresholds) from the external and internal environments. Among the factors not shown in this cartoon are the conditions of the substrate (nutrition, chronome: genome, etc.) and the ever‐changing conditions of the external and internal environments.

Modified from Spector [151], with permission
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Novera Herbert Spector, Svetlana Dolina, Germaine Cornelissen, Franz Halberg, Branislav M. Marković, Branislav D. Janković. Neuroimmunomodulation: Neuroimmune Interactions with the Environment. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 14: Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology: 1537-1550. First published in print 1996. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp040268