Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Overview of Bile Secretion

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 Biological Overview: Significance of Bile Formation in Vertebrates
1.1 Major Biliary Components and Major Functions of Bile
1.2 Differences Between Hepatic Excretory Function and Renal Excretory Function
2 Anatomy and Circulation of Biliary Tree
2.1 Functional Anatomy of Biliary Tract
2.2 Circulation of Liver and Biliary Tract
2.3 Imaging of Biliary Tract
3 Methods For Studying Physiology of Bile
3.1 Biliary Fistula Methods
3.2 Perfused Liver Preparations
3.3 Isolated Hepatocytes or Cultured Hepatocytes
3.4 Hepatic Cell Doublets
3.5 Isolated Membrane Fractions
4 Overview of Biliary Secretion
4.1 Bile as Resultant of Secretory, Hydrolytic, and Absorptive Processes
4.2 Canalicular Bile Formation
4.3 Ductular Modification of Canalicular Bile
4.4 Gallbladder Modification of Hepatic Bile
4.5 Spontaneous Changes in Bile Composition
4.6 Markers of Bile Flow
5 Classification of Biliary Constituents
6 Organic Constituents of Bile
6.1 Biliary Lipids
6.2 Minor Organic Components
6.3 Trace Organic Components
7 Inorganic Components of Bile
7.1 Physiological Determinants of Concentration of Common Ions
7.2 Biliary Calcium
7.3 Significance of Biliary Electrolyte Composition
7.4 Minor and Trace Metals
8 Secretory and Excretory Functions of Bile
8.1 Secretory Function
8.2 Excretory Function
9 Cholestasis
 1. Admirand, W. H., and D. M. Small. The physiochemical basis of cholesterol gallstone formation in man. J. Clin. Invest. 47: 1043–1052, 1968.
 2. Ahmad, A. B., P. N. Bennett, and M. Rowland. Influence of route of hepatic administration on drug availability. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 230: 718–725, 1984.
 3. Ammon, H., and S. F. Phillips. Inhibition of colonic water and electrolyte absorption by fatty acids in man. Gastroenterology 65: 744–749, 1973.
 4. Anwer, M. S. Effect of organic anions on bile acid uptake by isolated rat hepatocytes. Hoppe‐Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 359: 1027–1030, 1978.
 5. Anwer, M. S., E. R. L. O'Maille, A. F. Hofmann, R. A. DiPietro, and E. Michelotti. Influence of side‐chain charge on hepatic transport of bile acids and bile acid analogues. Am. J. Physiol. 249 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 12): G479–G488, 1985.
 6. Bachs, O., K. S. Famulski, F. Mirabelli, and E. Carafoli. ATP‐dependent Ca2+ transport in vesicles isolated from the bile canalicular region of the hepatocyte plasma membrane. Eur. J. Biochem. 147: 1–7, 1985.
 7. Ballatori, N., R. Jacob, and J. L. Boyer. Intrabiliary glutathion hydrolysis—a source of glutamate, cyst(e)ine, and glycine in bile (Abstract). Hepatology Baltimore 5: 951, 1985.
 8. Batta, A. K., and G. Salen. Substrate specificity of cholylglycine hydrolase for the hydrolysis of bile acid conjugates. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 15035–15039, 1984.
 9. Berge Henegouwen, G. P. van, and A. F. Hofmann. Nocturnal gallbladder storage and emptying in gallstone patients and healthy subjects. Gastroenterology 75: 879–885, 1978.
 10. Berk, P., J. T. Ferrucci, Jr., and G. R. Leopold. Radiology of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1983.
 11. Bjorkhem, I. Mechanism of bile acid biosynthesis in mammalian liver. In: Sterols and Bile Acids, edited by H. Danielsson and J. Sjovall. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1985, p. 231–278.
 12. Boyer, J. L. New concepts of mechanisms of hepatocyte bile formation. Physiol. Rev. 60: 303–326, 1980.
 13. Carey, M. C. The enterohepatic circulation. In: The Liver: Biology and Pathobiology, edited by I. Arias, H. Popper, D. Schachter, and D. A. Shafritz. New York: Raven, 1982, p. 429–465.
 14. Carey, M. C. Physico‐chemical properties of bile acids and their salts. In: Sterols and Bile Acids, edited by H. Danielsson and J. Sjovall. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1985, p. 345–403.
 15. Carey, M. C., and D. M. Small. The physical chemistry of cholesterol solubility in bile. J. Clin. Invest. 61: 998–1026, 1978.
 16. Chenderovitch, J. Bile duct function in biliary system. In: The Hepatobiliary System, edited by W. Taylor. New York: Plenum, 1976, p. 267–284.
 17. Classen, M., J. Geenen, and K. Kawai. Nonsurgical Biliary Drainage. New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1984.
 18. Cotton, P. B., J. Geenen, and B. Helm. Direct cholegraphy and related diagnostic methods (ERC, PTC). Clin. Gastroenterol. 12: 101–123, 1983.
 19. Cummings, S. A., and A. F. Hofmann. Physiological determinants of biliary calcium secretion in the dog. Gastroenterology 87: 664–673, 1984.
 20. Dawson, J. R., J. G. Weitering, G. J. Mulder, R. N. Stillwell, and K. S. Pang. Alteration of transit time and direction of flow to probe the heterogeneous distribution of conjugating activities for harmol in the perfused rat liver preparation. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 234: 691–699, 1985.
 21. Deitrick, J. E., C. K. McSherry, B. Thorbjarnarson, and F. Glenn. The study of bile salt kinetics in the experimental animal using a new technique. J. Surg. Res. 16: 559–563, 1974.
 22. Delacroix, D. L., H. J. F. Hodgson, A. McPherson, C. Dire, and J. P. Vaerman. Selective transport of polymeric immunoglobulin A in bile. Quantitative relationships of monomeric and polymeric immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M and other proteins in serum, bile and saliva. J. Clin. Invest. 70: 230–241, 1982.
 23. Dowling, R. H., E. Mack, J. Picott, J. Berger, and D. M. Small. Experimental model for the study of the enterohepatic circulation of bile in the rhesus monkey. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 72: 169–176, 1968.
 24. Earnest, D. L. Enteric hyperoxaluria. Adv. Intern. Med. 24: 407–427, 1979.
 25. Eng, C., and N. B. Javitt. Chenodeoxycholic acid‐3‐sulfate. Metabolism and excretion in the rat and hamster and effects on hepatic transport systems. Biochem. Pharmacol. 32: 3555–3558, 1983.
 26. Everson, G. T., M. J. Lawson, and C. McKinley. Gallbladder and small intestinal regulation of biliary lipid secretion during intraduodenal infusion of standard stimuli. J. Clin. Invest. 71: 596–603, 1983.
 27. Fellin, R., G. Baldo, and S. Zotti. Alterations of plasma lipoproteins in cholestasis. In: Liver and Lipid Metabolism, edited by S. Calandra, N. Carulli, and G. Salvioli. Amsterdam: Excerpta Med., 1984, p. 71–81.
 28. Forker, E. L. Two sites of bile formation as determined by mannitol and erythritol clearance in the guinea pig. J. Clin. Invest. 46: 1189–1195, 1967.
 29. French, S. W. Role of canalicular contraction in bile flow. Lab. Invest. 53: 245–249, 1985.
 30. Gautam, A., D. Scaramuzza, and J. L. Boyer. Quantitative assessment of primary canalicular secretion in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets (IRHC) by optical planimetry (Abstract). Gastroenterology 90: 1727, 1986.
 31. Goldberg, H. I. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary drainage. In: Gastrointestinal Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, edited by M. H. Sleisenger and J. S. Fordtran. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1983, p. 1745–1760.
 32. Gores, G. J., L. J. Kost, and N. F. LaRusso. The isolated perfused rat liver. Conceptual and practical considerations. Hepatology Baltimore 6: 511–517, 1986.
 33. Graf, J. Canalicular bile salt‐independent bile formation: concepts and clues from electrolyte transport in rat liver. Am. J. Physiol. 244 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 7): G233–G246, 1983.
 34. Graf, J., A. Gautam, and J. L. Boyer. Isolated rat hepatocyte couplets: a primary secretory unit for electrophysiologic studies of bile secretory function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 6516–6520, 1984.
 35. Greenway, C. V., and R. D. Stark. Hepatic vascular bed. Physiol. Rev. 51: 23–65, 1971.
 36. Gurantz, D., and A. F. Hofmann. Influence of bile acid structure on bile flow and biliary lipid secretion in the hamster. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 7): G736–G748, 1984.
 37. Guzelian, P., and J. L. Boyer. Glucose reabsorption from bile—evidence for a biliohepatic circulation. J. Clin. Invest. 53: 526–535, 1974.
 38. Hallenbeck, G. A. Biliary and pancreatic intraductal pressures. In: Handbook of Physiology. Alimentary Canal. Secretion, edited by C. F. Code. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1967, sect. 6, vol. II, chapt. 57, p. 1007–1025.
 39. Harvey, R. C., D. Taylor, C. N. Petrunka, A. D. Murray, and S. M. Strasberg. Quantitative analysis of major, minor and trace elements in gallbladder bile of patients with and without gallstones. Hepatology Baltimore 5: 129–132, 1985.
 40. Haslewood, G. A. D. Bile Salts. London: Methuen, 1967.
 41. Haslewood, G. A. D. The Biological Importance of Bile Salts. Amsterdam: North‐Holland, 1978.
 42. Hoffman, N. E., D. E. Donald, and A. F. Hofmann. Effect of primary bile acids on bile lipid secretion from perfused dog liver. Am. J. Physiol. 229: 714–720, 1975.
 43. Hofmann, A. F. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in man. Clin. Gastroenterol. 6: 3–24, 1977.
 44. Hofmann, A. F. The bile loss syndrome: a doubtful entity. In: Nonsurgical Biliary Drainage, edited by M. Classen, J. Geenen, and K. Kawai. New York: Springer‐Verlag, 1984, p. 120–126.
 45. Hofmann, A. F., S. M. Grundy, J. M. Lachin, S.‐P. Lan, R. A. Baum, R. F. Hanson, T. Hersh, N. C. Hightower, Jr., J. W. Marks, H. Mekhjian, R. A. Schaefer, R. D. Soloway, J. L. Thistle, F. B. Thomas, M. P. Tyor, and the National Cooperative Gallstone Study Group. Pretreatment biliary lipid composition in white patients with radiolucent gallstones in the National Cooperative Gallstone Study. Gastroenterology 83: 738–752, 1982.
 46. Hofmann, A. F., M. F. Laker, K. Dharmsathaphorn, H. P. Sherr, and D. Lorenzo. Complex pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria after jejunoileal bypass surgery: oxalogenic substances in diet contribute to urinary oxalate. Gastroenterology 84: 293–300, 1983.
 47. Hofmann, A. F., G. Molino, M. Milanese, and G. Belforte. Description and simulation of a physiological pharmacokinetic model for the metabolism and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in man. Cholic acid in healthy man. J. Clin. Invest. 71: 1003–1022, 1983.
 48. Hofmann, A. F., and A. Roda. Physiochemical properties of bile acids and their relationship to biological properties: an overview of the problem. J. Lipid Res. 25: 1477–1489, 1984.
 49. Holzbach, R. T. Effects of gallbladder function on human bile: compositional and structural changes. Hepatology Baltimore 4, Suppl.: 57S–60S, 1984.
 50. Huijghebaert, S. M., and A. F. Hofmann. Pancreatic carboxypeptidase hydrolysis of bile acid‐amino acid conjugates: selective resistance of glycine and taurine amidates. Gastroenterology 90: 306–315, 1986.
 51. Huijghebaert, S. M., and A. F. Hofmann. Influence of the amino acid moiety on deconjugation of bile acid amidates by cholylglycine hydrolase or human fecal cultures. J. Lipid Res. 27: 742–752, 1986.
 52. Inoue, M., R. Kinne, T. Tran, and I. M. Arias. Taurocholate transport by rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles. Evidence for the presence of an Na+‐independent transport system. J. Clin. Invest. 73: 659–663, 1984.
 53. Isaksson, B. On the lipid constituents of bile from human gallbladder containing cholesterol gallstones. A comparison with normal human bladder bile. Acta Soc. Med. Ups. 59: 277, 1953‐1954.
 54. Jones, A. L. Anatomy of the normal liver. In: Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease, edited by D. Zakim and T. D. Boyer. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1982, p. 3–31.
 55. Kanazawa, S., V. Herbert, B. Herzlich, G. Drivas, and C. Manusselis. Removal of cobalamin analogue in bile by enterohepatic circulation of vitamine B12. Lancet 1: 707–708, 1983.
 56. Kapsinow, R. The experimental production of duodenal ulcer by exclusion of bile from the intestine. Ann. Surg. 83: 614–617, 1926.
 57. Klaassen, C. D. Biliary excretion of metals. Drug Met. Rev. 5:165–196, 1976.
 58. Klaassen, C. D., and J. B. Watkins III. Mechanisms of bile formation, hepatic uptake and biliary excretion. Pharmacol. Rev. 36: 1–67, 1984.
 59. Kloppel, T. M., W. R. Brown, and J. Reichen. Mechanisms of secretion of proteins into bile: studies in the perfused rat liver. Hepatology Baltimore 6: 587–594, 1986.
 60. Lake, J. R., V. Licko, R. W. Van Dyke, and B. Scharschmidt. Biliary secretion of fluid‐phase markers by the isolated perfused rat liver. Role of transcellular vesicular transport. J. Clin. Invest. 76: 676–684, 1985.
 61. Lamont, J. T., B. F. Smith, and J. R. L. Moore. Role of gallbladder mucin in pathophysiology of gallstones. Hepatology Baltimore 4: 51S–56S, 1984.
 62. Leiss, O., and K. von Bergmann. Comparison of biliary lipid secretion in non‐obese cholesterol gallstone patients with normal, young, male volunteers. Klin. Wochenschr. 63: 1163–1169, 1985.
 63. Lowe, P. J., S. G. Barnwell, and R. Coleman. Rapid kinetic analysis of the bile‐salt‐dependent secretion of phospholipid, cholesterol and a plasma‐membrane enzyme into bile. Biochem. J. 222: 631–637, 1984.
 64. MacDonald, I. A., V. D. Bokkenheuser, J. Winter, A. M. McLernon, and E. H. Mosbach. Degradation of steroids in the human gut. J. Lipid Res. 24: 675–700, 1983.
 65. Mann, F. C., J. P. Foster, and S. D. Brimhall. The relation of the common bile duct to the pancreatic duct in common domestic and laboratory animals. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 5: 203–206, 1920.
 66. McCloy, R. F., R. G. Greenberg, and J. H. Baron. Duodenal pH in health and duodenal ulcer disease: effect of a meal. Gut 25: 386–392, 1984.
 67. Meier, P. J., R. Knickelbein, R. H. Moseley, J. W. Dobbins, and J. L. Boyer. Evidence for carrier‐mediated chloride/bicarbonate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles. J. Clin. Invest. 75: 1256–1263, 1985.
 68. Meier, P. J., A. St. Meier‐Abt, C. Barrett, and J. L. Boyer. Mechanisms of taurocholate transport in canalicular and basolateral rat liver plasma membrane vesicles. Evidence for an electrogenic canalicular organic anion carrier. J. Biol. Chem. 259: 10614–10622, 1984.
 69. Meier, P. J., E. S. Sztul, A. Reuben, and J. L. Boyer. Structural and functional polarity of canalicular and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles isolated in high yield from rat liver. J. Cell Biol. 98: 991–1000, 1984.
 70. Moore, E. W. The role of calcium in the pathogenesis of gallstones: Ca++ electrode studies of model bile salt solutions and other biologic systems. Hepatology Baltimore 4, Suppl.: 228S–243S, 1984.
 71. Nilsell, K., B. Angelin, B. Leijd, and K. Einarsson. Comparative effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid on bile acid kinetics and biliary lipid secretion in humans. Gastroenterology 85: 1248–1256, 1983.
 72. Northfield, T. C., and A. F. Hofmann. Biliary lipid output during three meals and an overnight fast. I. Relationship to bile acid pool size and cholesterol saturation of bile in gallstone and control subjects. Gut 16: 1–11, 1975.
 73. Northfield, T. C., N. F. LaRusso, A. F. Hofmann, and J. L. Thistle. Biliary lipid output during three meals and an overnight fast. II. Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid treatment in gallstone subjects. Gut 16: 12–17, 1975.
 74. Nyhlin, H., M. V. Merrick, M. A. Eastwood, and W. G. Brydon. Evaluation of ileal function using 23‐selena‐25‐homotaurocholate, a gamma‐labeled conjugated bile acid. Gastroenterology 84: 63–68, 1983.
 75. Oda, M., V. M. Price, M. M. Fisher, and M. J. Phillips. Ultrastructure of bile canaliculi with special reference to the surface coat of the pericanalicular web. Lab. Invest. 31: 314–323, 1974.
 76. Okuda, K., K. Tanikawa, T. Emua, S. Kuratomi, S. Jinnouchi, K. Urabe, T. Sumikoshi, Y. Kanda, Y. Fukayama, H. Musha, H. Mori, Y. Shimokowa, F. Yakushiji, and Y. Matsuura. Nonsurgical percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography—diagnostic significance in medical problems of the liver. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19: 21–36, 1974.
 77. Olson, J. R., and J. M. Fujimoto. Evaluation of hepatobiliary function by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique. Biochem. Pharmacol. 29: 205–211, 1980.
 78. Olson, J. R., and J. M. Fujimoto. Demonstration of a d‐glucose transport system in the biliary tree of the rat by use of the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique. Biochem. Pharmacol. 29: 213–219, 1980.
 79. Ostrow, J. D. Bile Pigments and Jaundice. New York: Dekker, 1986.
 80. Pang, K. S., P. Kong, J. A. Terrell, and R. E. Billings. Metabolism of acetaminophen and phenacetin by isolated rat hepatocytes. A system in which the spatial organization inherent in the liver is disrupted. Drug. Metab. Dispos. 13: 42–50, 1985.
 81. Pang, K. S., H. Koster, I. C. M. Halsema, E. Scholtens, G. J. Mulder, and R. N. Stillwell. Normal and retrograde perfusion to probe the zonal distribution of sulfation and glucuronidation activities of harmol in the perfused rat liver preparation. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 224: 647–653, 1983.
 82. Patton, J. S. Gastrointestinal lipid digestion. In: Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, edited by L. R. Johnson. New York: Raven, 1981, p. 1147–1220.
 83. Paumgartner, G., and T. Sauerbruch. Secretion, composition and flow of bile. Clin. Gastroenterol. 12: 3–23, 1983.
 84. Pertsemlidis, D., E. H. Kirchman, and E. H. Ahrens, Jr. Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the dog. I. Effects of complete bile diversion and of cholesterol feeding on absorption, synthesis, accumulation and excretion rates measured during life. J. Clin. Invest. 52: 2353–2367, 1973.
 85. Pertsemlidis, D., E. H. Kirchman, and E. H. Ahrens, Jr. Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the dog. II. Effects of complete bile diversion and of cholesterol feeding on pool size of tissue cholesterol measured at autopsy. J. Clin. Invest. 52: 2368–2378, 1973.
 86. Phillips, M. J., C. Oshio, M. Miyairi, H. Katz, and C. R. Smith. A study of bile canalicular contractions in isolated hepatocytes. Hepatology Baltimore 2: 763–768, 1982.
 87. Rappaport, A. M. Hepatic blood flow: morphologic aspects and physiologic regulation. Int. Rev. Physiol. 21: 1–63, 1980.
 88. Rege, R. V., M.‐J. Lee, and E. W. Moore. The Gibbs‐Donnan equilibrium: its effect on distribution of calcium (Ca++) across rabbit gallbladder (GB) epithelium (Abstract). Gastroenterology 90: 1761, 1986.
 89. Rege, R. V., and E. W. Moore. Pathogenesis of calcium‐containing gallstones. Canine ductular bile, but not gallbladder bile, is supersaturated with calcium carbonate. J. Clin. Invest. 77: 21–26, 1986.
 90. Rene, E., R. G. Danzinger, A. F. Hofmann, and M. Nakagaki. Pharmacologic effect of somatostatin on bile formation in the dog: enhanced ductular reabsorption as the major mechanism of anticholeresis. Gastroenterology 84: 120–129, 1983.
 91. Reuben, A. Biliary proteins. Hepatology Baltimore 4, Suppl.: 46S–50S, 1984.
 92. Reuben, A., K. E. Howell, and J. L. Boyer. Effects of taurocholate on the size of mixed lipid micelles and their associations with pigment and proteins in rat bile. J. Lipid Res. 23: 1039–1052, 1982.
 93. Reuben, A., P. N. Maton, G. M. Murphy, and R. H. Dowling. Bile lipid secretion in obese and non‐obese individuals with and without gallstones. Clin. Sci. 69: 71–79, 1985.
 94. Roda, A., A. F. Hofmann, and K. J. Mysels. The influence of bile salt structure on self‐association in aqueous solutions. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 6362–6370, 1983.
 95. Sabesin, S. M. Cholestatic lipoproteins—their pathogenesis and significance. Gastroenterology 83: 704–709, 1982.
 96. Scharschmidt, B. F., and R. W. Van Dyke. Mechanisms of hepatic electrolyte transport. Gastroenterology 85: 1199–1214, 1983.
 97. Setchell, K. Hepatic conjugation of enterolactone and enterodiol: the first mammalian lignans. In: Advances in Glucuronide Conjugation, edited by S. Matern, K. W. Bock, and W. Gerok. Lancaster: MTP, 1985, p. 287–291.
 98. Silvis, S. Therapeutic Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. New York: Igaku Shoin, 1985.
 99. Smith, R. L. The Excretory Function of Bile: The Elimination of Drugs and Toxic Substances in Bile. London: Chapman & Hall, 1973.
 100. Sobotka, H. Physiological Chemistry of the Bile. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1937.
 101. Soloway, R. D., H. C. Carlson, and L. J. Schoenfield. A balloon‐occludable T‐tube for cholangiography and quantitative collection and reinfusion of bile in man. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 79: 500–504, 1972.
 102. Somjen, G. J., and T. Gilat. Contribution of vesicular and micellar carriers to cholesterol transport in human bile. J. Lipid Res. 26: 699–704, 1985.
 103. Sperber, I. Secretion of organic anions in the formation of urine and bile. Pharmacol. Rev. 11: 109, 1951.
 104. Spivak, W., W. Yuey, and D. DiVenuto. Role of bilirubin‐mono‐ and diglucuronide (BMG, BDG) in the formation of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in model bile and native bile systems (Abstract). Gastroenterology 90: 1771, 1986.
 105. Steer, C. J., and R. D. Klausner. Clathrin‐coated pits and coated vesicles: functional and structural studies. Hepatology 3: 437–454, 1983.
 106. Steihl, A. Disturbances of bile acid metabolism in cholestasis. Clin. Gastroenterol. 6: 45–67, 1977.
 107. Suwelack, D., and H. Weber. Assessment of enterohepatic circulation of radioactivity following a single dose of [14C]‐Nimodipine in the rat. Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 10: 231–239, 1985.
 108. Tavoloni, N. Permeation patterns of polar nonelectrolytes across the guinea pig biliary tree. Am. J. Physiol. 247 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 10): G527–G536, 1984.
 109. Tavoloni, N., and F. Schaffner. The intrahepatic biliary epithelium in the guinea pig: is hepatic artery blood flow essential in maintaining its function and structure? Hepatology Baltimore 5: 666–672, 1985.
 110. Thomas, P. E. An improved cannula for gastric and intestinal fistulas. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 46: 260–265, 1941.
 111. Thompson, A. B. R., and J. M. Dietschy. Intestinal lipid absorption. In: Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, edited by L. R. Johnson. New York: Raven, 1981, p. 1147–1220.
 112. Thureborn, E. Human hepatic bile: composition changes due to altered enterohepatic circulation. Acta Chir. Scand. Suppl. 303: 1–63, 1962.
 113. Toouli, J., J. E. Geenen, W. J. Hogan, W. J. Dodds, and R. C. Arndorfer. Sphincter of Oddi motor activity: a comparison between patients with common bile duct stones and controls. Gastroenterology 82: 111–117, 1982.
 114. Triger, D. R. Evaluation of liver disease by radionuclide scanning. In: Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease, edited by D. Zakim and T. D. Boyer. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1982, p. 633–646.
 115. Tse, F. L. S., F. Ballard, and J. Skinn. Estimating the fraction reabsorbed in drugs undergoing enterohepatic circulation. J. Pharmacokinet. Biopharm. 10: 455–461, 1982.
 116. Uddin, K. K., and R. M. Case. Patterns of bicarbonate secretion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and their relation to gastric acid secretion. In: Mechanisms of Mucosal Protection in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract, edited by A. Allen, G. Flemström, A. Garner, W. Silen, and L. A. Turnberg. New York: Raven, 1984, p. 129–134.
 117. Vadnere, M., and S. Lindenbaum. Distribution of bile salts between 1‐octanol and aqueous buffer. J. Pharm. Sci. 71: 875–880, 1982.
 118. Van Dyke, R. W., J. E. Stephens, and B. F. Scharschmidt. Bile acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Am. J. Physiol. 243 (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 6): G484–G492, 1982.
 119. Vennes, J. A., and S. E. Silvis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In: Gastrointestinal Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, edited by M. H. Sleisenger and J. S. Fordtran. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1983, p. 1727–1742.
 120. Weiss, J. S., A. Gautam, J. J. Lauff, M. W. Sundberg, P. Jatlow, J. L. Boyer, and D. Seligson. The clinical importance of a protein‐bound fraction of serum bilirubin in patients with hyperbilirubinemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 147–150, 1983.
 121. Wheeler, H. O. Concentrating function of the gallbladder. Am. J. Med. 51: 588–595, 1971.
 122. Wheeler, H. O., E. D. Ross, and S. E. Bradley. Canalicular bile production in dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 214: 866–874, 1968.
 123. Whipple, G. H., and W. B. Hawkins. Bile fistulas and related abnormalities. Bleeding, osteoporosis, cholelithiasis, and duodenal ulcers. J. Exp. Med. 62: 599–620, 1935.
 124. Wood, J. R., and J. Svanvik. Gall‐bladder water and electrolyte transport and its regulation. Gut 24: 579–593, 1983.
 125. Yoon, Y. B., L. R. Hagey, A. F. Hofmann, D. Gurantz, E. L. Michelotti, and J. Steinbach. Effect of side‐chain shortening on the physiological properties of bile acids: hepatic transport and effect on biliary secretion of 23‐nor‐ursodeoxycholate in rodents. Gastroenterology 90: 837–852, 1986.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Alan F. Hofmann. Overview of Bile Secretion. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 18: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Salivary, Gastric, Pancreatic, and Hepatobiliary Secretion: 549-566. First published in print 1989. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp060328