Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

The Roles of Cytochromes P‐450 in the Regulation of Steroidogenesis

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 Properties of Cytochromes P‐450
1.1 Chemical Properties
1.2 Spectral Properties
1.3 The P‐450 Cycle
1.4 The Mechanism of P‐450 Enzyme Activity
1.5 Reduction of Cytochrome P‐450
2 Synthesis of Steroid Hormones
2.1 Nomenclature
2.2 Pathways to Steroid Hormones
3 Individual Cytochromes P‐450
3.1 C27 Side‐Chain Cleavage P‐450
3.2 C21 Side‐Chain Cleavage P‐450 (Hydroxylase/Lyase)
4 C21 Hydroxylase
5 11β‐Hydroxylase and Aldehyde Synthetase
6 Aromatase
7 The Role of Membranes in the Actions of Cytochromes P‐450
7.1 The Steroidogenic Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
7.2 The Steroidogenic Endoplasmic Reticulum
8 Molecular Biology of Cytochromes P‐450
8.1 Cytochrome P‐450c27scc (CYPII)
8.2 Cytochrome P‐450 C21scc (17α‐hydroxylase) (CYP17)
8.3 Cytochrome P‐450 21‐Hydroxylase (CYP21)
8.4 Cytochrome P‐450 11β‐Hydroxylase (CYP11)
8.5 Aromatase (CYP19)
 1. Dean, W. L., and R. D. Gray. Relationship between state of aggregation and catalytic activity of P450 LM2 and P450 reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 14679, 1983.
 2. Griffin, B. W., J. A. Peterson, and R. W. Estabrook. Cytochrome P‐450: Biophysical properties and catalytic function. In: The Porphorins, edited by D. Dolphin. New York: Academic Press, 1979, p. 333.
 3. Gunsalus, I. C., J. R. Meeks, J. D. Lipscomb, P. De Brunner, and E. Munck. Bacterial monooxygenase—the P450 cytochrome system. In: Molecular Mechanisms of Oxygen Activation, edited by O. Hayashi. New York: Academic Press, 1974, p. 559.
 4. Hall, P. F. Cellular organization for steroidogenesis. Int. Rev. Cytol. 86: 53, 1984.
 5. Hall, P. F. Trophic stimulation of steroidogenesis: In search of the elusive trigger. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 41: 1, 1985a.
 6. Hall, P. F. The role of cytochromes P450 in the synthesis of steroid hormones. Vitam. Horm. 42: 315, 1985b.
 7. Hall, P. F. Cytochromes P450 and the regulation of steroid synthesis. Steroids 48: 131, 1986.
 8. Hall, P. F. Testicular steroid synthesis: Organization and regulation. In: The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd ed., edited by E. Knobil and J. D. Neill. New York: Raven Press, 1994, p. 1335.
 9. John, M. E., M. C. Boggaram, V. Simpson, and E. R. Waterman. Transcriptional regulation of steroid hydroxylation genes by corticotropin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 4751, 1986.
 10. Johnson, E. F., and S. L. McKnight. Eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory proteins. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 58: 799, 1989.
 11. Kimura, T. ACTH stimulation of cholesterol side‐chain cleavage. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 36: 105, 1981.
 12. Lambeth, J. D., D. W. Seybert, J. R. Lancaster, J. C. Salerno, and H. Kamin. Steroidogenic electron transport in adrenal cortex mitochondria. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 45: 13, 1982.
 13. Parker, K. I., and B. P. Schimmer. Transcriptional regulation of the adrenal steroidogenic enzymes. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 4: 46, 1993.
 14. Samuels, L. T., L. Bussman, K. Matsumoto, and R. A. Huseby. Organization of androgen biosynthesis in the testis. J. Steroid Biochem. 6: 291, 1975.
 15. Sligar, S. G. Coupling of spin, substrate, and redox equilibria in cytochrome P450. Biochemistry 15: 5399, 1976.
 16. White, R. E., and M. J. Coon. Oxygen activation by cytochrome P450. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 49: 315, 1980.

Contact Editor

Submit a note to the editor about this article by filling in the form below.

* Required Field

How to Cite

Peter F. Hall. The Roles of Cytochromes P‐450 in the Regulation of Steroidogenesis. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 20: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Cellular Endocrinology: 413-437. First published in print 1998. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070116