Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Autocrine/Paracrine Intermediates in Hormonal Action and Modulation of Cellular Responses to Hormones

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 Methods to Explore Local Control
2 Local Control in the Anterior Pituitary
2.1 Evidence for Intercellular Communication in the Anterior Pituitary
2.2 Putative Paracrine Factors
3 Local Control in the Adrenal Cortex and Medulla
3.1 Morphological Correlates of Medulla–Cortex Interactions
3.2 Putative Paracrine and Autocrine Factors in the Medulla
3.3 Putative Paracrine and Autocrine Factors in the Adrenal Cortex
4 Local Control in the Testis
4.1 Evidence for Functional Interaction Between Different Testicular Cell Types
4.2 Local Control by Steroids
4.3 Local Control by Regulatory Peptides
4.4 Local Control by Biogenic Amines and Nitrous Oxide
4.5 Local Control by Polypeptide Growth Factors
4.6 Local Control by Substances From Testicular Macrophages
5 Local Control in the Ovary
5.1 Evidence for Functional Interaction Between Thecal Cells and Granulosa Cells
5.2 Local Control by Steroids
5.3 Local Control by Regulatory Peptides
5.4 Opioid Peptides
5.5 Local Control by Polypeptide Growth Factors
6 Paracrine Factors Mediating Actions of Thyroid and Steroid Hormones
7 Local Control in Pancreatic Endocrine Cells
7.1 Are Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin, and Pancreatic Polypeptide Paracrine and Autocrine Factors in the Pancreatic Islets?
7.2 Local Control by Other Regulatory Peptides
7.3 Local Control by Biogenic Amines
7.4 Local Control by Polypeptide Growth Factors
8 Local Control in the Thyroid Gland
8.1 Local Control by Regulatory Peptides
8.2 Local Control by Polypeptide Growth Factors
9 Local Control in the Parathyroid Gland
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Effect of various paracrine and autocrine factors on anterior pituitary hormone secretion and on cellular proliferation and differentiation. FS, folliculo‐stellate; IFN‐γ, interferon‐γ, TSH, thyroid‐stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone; FSH, follicle‐stimulating hormone; α‐SU, α‐subunit; POMC, proopiomelanocortin; ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone; GH, growth hormone; IGF, insulin‐like growth factor; NGF, nerve growth factor; PRL, prolactin; cleaved product of prolactin; VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide; cl‐PRL, cleaved product of prolactin; EGF, epidermal growth factor; NMB, neuromedin B.

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Effect of various paracrine and autocrine factors on hormone secretion from adrenal medulla and cortex and on cellular growth and differentiation. ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone; IGF, insulin‐like growth factor, TGF‐α, transforming growth factor‐α; GABA, γ‐aminobutyric acid; CRF, corticotrophin‐releasing factor; POMC, proopiomelanocortin.

Figure 3. Figure 3.

Effect of various paracrine and autocrine factors on hormone secretion and cellular differentiation in various testicular compartments. LH, luteinizing hormone; FSH, follicle‐stimulating hormone; GnRH, gonadotrophin‐releasing hormone; TGF‐β, transforming growth factor‐β; CRF, corticotrophin‐releasing factor; GRF, growth hormone‐releasing factor; IGF, insulin‐like growth factor.

Figure 4. Figure 4.

Effect of various paracrine and autocrine factors on hormone secretion and on cellular proliferation and differentiation in various compartments of the ovary. LH, luteinizing hormone; FSH, follicle‐stimulating hormone; TGF‐β, transforming growth factor‐β; EGF, epidermal growth factor; IGF, insulin‐like growth factor; GRF, growth hormone‐releasing factor; GnRH, gonadotrophin‐releasing hormone; TNF‐α, tumor necrosis factor‐α.

Figure 1.

Effect of various paracrine and autocrine factors on anterior pituitary hormone secretion and on cellular proliferation and differentiation. FS, folliculo‐stellate; IFN‐γ, interferon‐γ, TSH, thyroid‐stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone; FSH, follicle‐stimulating hormone; α‐SU, α‐subunit; POMC, proopiomelanocortin; ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone; GH, growth hormone; IGF, insulin‐like growth factor; NGF, nerve growth factor; PRL, prolactin; cleaved product of prolactin; VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide; cl‐PRL, cleaved product of prolactin; EGF, epidermal growth factor; NMB, neuromedin B.

Figure 2.

Effect of various paracrine and autocrine factors on hormone secretion from adrenal medulla and cortex and on cellular growth and differentiation. ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone; IGF, insulin‐like growth factor, TGF‐α, transforming growth factor‐α; GABA, γ‐aminobutyric acid; CRF, corticotrophin‐releasing factor; POMC, proopiomelanocortin.

Figure 3.

Effect of various paracrine and autocrine factors on hormone secretion and cellular differentiation in various testicular compartments. LH, luteinizing hormone; FSH, follicle‐stimulating hormone; GnRH, gonadotrophin‐releasing hormone; TGF‐β, transforming growth factor‐β; CRF, corticotrophin‐releasing factor; GRF, growth hormone‐releasing factor; IGF, insulin‐like growth factor.

Figure 4.

Effect of various paracrine and autocrine factors on hormone secretion and on cellular proliferation and differentiation in various compartments of the ovary. LH, luteinizing hormone; FSH, follicle‐stimulating hormone; TGF‐β, transforming growth factor‐β; EGF, epidermal growth factor; IGF, insulin‐like growth factor; GRF, growth hormone‐releasing factor; GnRH, gonadotrophin‐releasing hormone; TNF‐α, tumor necrosis factor‐α.

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Carl Denef. Autocrine/Paracrine Intermediates in Hormonal Action and Modulation of Cellular Responses to Hormones. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 20: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Cellular Endocrinology: 461-514. First published in print 1998. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070118