Comprehensive Physiology Wiley Online Library

Insulin as a Growth‐Promoting Hormone

Full Article on Wiley Online Library


The sections in this article are:

1 Insulin Actions and Signaling
2 Growth‐Promoting Effects of Insulin on Cultured Cells
3 Synergistic Actions of Insulin and Other Growth Factors in the Promotion of Cell Proliferation
4 Insulin as A Growth‐Promoting Hormone in vivo
5 Insulin as an Embryonic Growth Factor
5.1 The Role of Insulin as an Embryonic Growth Factor in Rodents
5.2 The Role of Insulin as an Embryonic Growth Factor in Chickens
6 Leprechaunism and Rabson‐Mendenhall Syndrome
7 Insulin and Liver Regeneration
8 Knockout Mouse Models of Insulin Resistance
9 How Insulin Induces Growth
9.1 Regulation of Gene Expression by Insulin
10 Insulin and Apoptosis
11 Summary
Figure 1. Figure 1.

Schematic of potential signaling pathways utilized by insulin. It should be noted that not all of the effects of insulin, such as its acute activation of glucose transport, occur in all target tissues. Also, not all possible insulin signaling pathways have been included in the figure. [Based on a figure by White and Kahn 445.]

Figure 2. Figure 2.

Dose‐dependent stimulation of thymidine incorporation by insulin or IGF‐I in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells. Rat H4IIE cells were deprived of serum for 48–54 h and then treated with insulin or IGF‐I at the indicated concentrations. [3H]thymidine incorporation was then determined as a measure of DNA synthesis. Data are expressed as the fold change compared with untreated control cells (γ‐axis) at the different log concentrations of insulin and IGF‐I ranging from 1 × 10−12M to 1 × 10−7 M.

Figure 1.

Schematic of potential signaling pathways utilized by insulin. It should be noted that not all of the effects of insulin, such as its acute activation of glucose transport, occur in all target tissues. Also, not all possible insulin signaling pathways have been included in the figure. [Based on a figure by White and Kahn 445.]

Figure 2.

Dose‐dependent stimulation of thymidine incorporation by insulin or IGF‐I in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells. Rat H4IIE cells were deprived of serum for 48–54 h and then treated with insulin or IGF‐I at the indicated concentrations. [3H]thymidine incorporation was then determined as a measure of DNA synthesis. Data are expressed as the fold change compared with untreated control cells (γ‐axis) at the different log concentrations of insulin and IGF‐I ranging from 1 × 10−12M to 1 × 10−7 M.

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Joseph L. Messina. Insulin as a Growth‐Promoting Hormone. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 24: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Hormonal Control of Growth: 783-811. First published in print 1999. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp070525