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Loss of Integration and Resiliency with Age: A Dissipative Destruction

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The sections in this article are:

1 Senescence
1.1 Models in Science
1.2 Senescence Is Not the Same as Aging
1.3 What Senesces?
1.4 System Death or Component Death
2 Regular Phenomena
2.1 Increases in Regularity with Senescence
2.2 Regularity of a Variable's Time History
3 Physical Background of Senescence
3.1 Complexity
3.2 Order
3.3 Vertical Integration (Hierarchy)
3.4 Horizontal Integration (Heterarchy)
3.5 Causality
3.6 Stability
3.7 Energy vs. Entropy in Self‐Organization
4 General Principle of Homeodynamic Senescence
4.1 Homeodynamics Instead of Homeostasis
4.2 Irreversibility and Constraints
4.3 Biological Markers of Age
5 Homeodynamics and Predictability
5.1 Specifying the Homeodynamic Construct
5.2 Fluctuations and Chance
6 Counterintuitive Effects of Clamping a Homeodynamic System
6.1 Environmental Potentials
6.2 Clamping
7 Redefinition of Senescence
7.1 Escape from Senescence‐Induced Fatal Failures by Re‐Initialization
7.2 Summary of Characteristics of Senescence as Homeodynamic Instability
8 Aspects of Senescence
8.1 Aspect Theories
8.2 Generalizations from Aspect Theories
9 Wear‐and‐Tear Revisited
9.1 Reliability Theory for Machines
10 Human Senescence as Dissipative Destruction
10.1 Component Failure–Cell Culture Senescence
10.2 Dissipative Destruction as Basis of Gompertz Mortality Kinetics
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F. Eugene Yates, Laurel A. Benton. Loss of Integration and Resiliency with Age: A Dissipative Destruction. Compr Physiol 2011, Supplement 28: Handbook of Physiology, Aging: 591-610. First published in print 1995. doi: 10.1002/cphy.cp110122